Golden Age 21 MIXTURISM (Mix-TUR-ism)

FORTY TWO YEARS AGO, I published my first book on The Philosophy of Mixturism called UTOPIA NOW; Unlike most Utopias which call for the abolishment of private enterprise, I called for a mixture of private and public enterprise called MIXTURISM.
Public enterprise should hold in common that which is in common: the infrastructure. The infrastructure should consist of all governments, roads, bridges, sewer systems, public education, public health care for all, the Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Marine corps, FBI, CIA, Home Land Security, the medium of exchange, and many other things that are in common. Private enterprise can thrive without having to worry about the infrastructure.

If the Five Finger Agenda were adopted, we could have a UTOPIA NOW for everyone.

THE FIVE FINGER MIXTURIST (Mix-TUR-ist) AGENDA

1.ADEQUATE MONETARY SYSTEM: The three functions of the Federal Reserve private banking system to lower or raise discount rates, to buy or sell securities on the open market, to lower or raise the reserve requirements for member banks are inadequate for maintaining a balanced money supply at all times. By adding a FOURTH AND A FIFTH FUNCTION to the monetary system, a balanced money supply could be achieved. The fourth function would index the PAYROLL TAX on a scale of 1 to 10 which would bring a better balance. The index could be lowered when more money is desired in the consumers pockets and raised when less is needed. NEW MONEY WOULD BE CREATED TO MAKE UP THE DEFICIT, NOT BORROWED FROM CHINA OR ANYONE ELSE. A fifth function could be added by using Article !, Section 8, of the Constitution to coin money and regulate the value there of, and then– BYPASS THE FEDERAL RESERVE PRIVATE BANKING INDUSTRY and give the money to the Treasury Department. The Treasury could fund infrastructure work, and give money to the states to help them fund programs. States gave up there right to create money when they joined the United States of America.

The American people needs to know that banks BUY and SELL money like all other businesses do; that when a bank pays 2 percent for money and sell it for 8 percent, the banks make 400 percent gross profit and not 6 percent like they would like for you to think. If a merchant pays two dollars for a candy bar and sells it for eight dollars, the gross profit would be 400 percent just like a bank buying money for two dollars and selling it for eight dollars. The gross profit would be 400 percent. Banks are engaged in Loan sharking! ANY INTEREST RATE OVER FIVE PERCENT IS USURY.

CONGRESS NEEDS TO CREATE NEW MONEY EACH YEAR EQUIVALENT TO THE INCREASE IN THE GREED INDEX WHICH IS CALLED INFLATION. INFLATION IS AN EUPHEMISM FOR THEFT. GREED WITH A PRICE MARKER DEVALUES MONEY. Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution gives Congress three way to raise money: taxation, borrowing money, and most important coining money and regulating the value. Congress uses a two leg stool when the stool has three legs. ONLY CONGRESS HAS THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWER TO CREATE MONEY, NOT THE FEDERAL RESERVE PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM.

Article 1 – The Legislative Branch
Section 8 – Powers of Congress ***See to coin money…
**** To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; WHY NOT USE THIS LEG OF A THREE LEG STOOL TO SOLVE AMERICA’S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS? WHY USE ONLY TWO LEGS?

2.RESERVE RETRAINING WORK FORCE: The greatest problem facing America is EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT. This problem can be PERMANENTLY solved by establishing a Reserve Retraining Work force. Everyone would be in the regular work force or in the Reserve-Retraining Work force. All unemployment would be by choice.
It wouldn’t matter which side of the track you were born on, you would go to school free, and in some case the unemployed would get paid a living wage while going to school. Any one could go as far as their mind will let them by making passing grades. Employment offices would mean what they say: employment or education with pay. When old jobs are no longer needed, people must be re-trained for new jobs and get paid while being re-trained.With 300,000 people retiring each month and with the need for only 150,000 new jobs for new people coming into the work force, we should be having a problem with employment instead of unemployment..

3. ALL AMERICANS WHO WANT TO OWN A HOME SHOULD BE ABLE TO, REGARDLESS OF INCOME. The Federal Government should endow a HOME LOAN FUND, so anyone making below average wages could borrow money to finance a home at an interest rate from 1% to 2% FOR UP TO
50 YEARS. The Federal Government must become a competitor of the banking industry. Public enterprise has as much right to exist as does private enterprise. The Constitution call for a form of MIXTURISM: business and government working together to meet the needs and desires of all the people.

4. HEALTH CARE SYSTEM: Since the average health care claims run under $20,000, the Federal Government could pay all claims over $20,000 for only 32 billion dollars per 1 trillion dollars of total health care cost. Without having to worry about claims for over $20,000, small businesses and small organizations could self-insure which would put real competition in the insurance industry where none now exist. THIS WILL LEAD TO A SINGLE PAY UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. Obama Care is a giant step toward Universal Health Care. Paying all claims over $20,000 is the next best step. Public enterprise has as much right to exist as does private enterprise. All the Government wants and needs to do is provide the money to pay for health care. The Government doesn’t want to own doctors or hospitals. It just wants to make sure doctors and hospitals get paid. The last thing that Government wants or needs to do is take over doctors and hospitals. A poor argument made by those who oppose Universal Health Care.

5. A FIRST CLASS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM CAN BEST BE ESTABLISHED BY HAVING THE TEACHER BECOME THE DIRECTOR OF A PLANNED PROGRAM THAT WILL REACH ALL OBJECTIVES DESIRED USING THE BEST OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. WE COULD SPEND A FEW MILLION DOLLARS ON EVERY COURSE BEING TAUGHT IN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE THAT WOULD TEACH EVERY THING KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT BY EXPERTS WHICH WOULD COST A LOT LESS THAN WHAT WE ARE NOW SPENDING ON EDUCATION, AND IT WOULD ALLOW ALL TEACHERS TO DO A SUPER JOB OF TEACHING. Every person regardless of which side of the track they were born on; they should go to school free as far as their mind will take them. We could create an On Line Digital University with the greatest teachers and make it free to anyone willing to do the work…THE GREATEST PART OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE IS EDUCATION.

THE DREAM OF THE VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE ON PLANET EARTH IS NOT TO BECOME MILLIONAIRES; BUT TO HAVE THE 30 plus ESSENTIALS FOR LIVING, NOT JUST EXISTING.

THE 30 plus ESSENTIALS OF LIFE FOR LIVING –NOT JUST EXISTING ARE: ROOF OVER THEIR HEAD, CLOTHES ON THEIR BACK, FOOD ON THE TABLE, AUTOMOBILE, EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, ALARM CLOCK, LIGHTS ON, WATER RUNNING, TOILET FLUSHING, AIR CONDITION, STOVE, REFRIGERATOR, DISH WASHER, WASHING MACHINE, CLOTHES DRYER, MICROWAVE, COFFEE POT, BATH TUB, SHOWER, FURNITURE, LINENS AND THINGS, TV SET, COMPUTER, HOUSE PHONE, CELL PHONE, VACUUM CLEANER, VACATION, TOILET PAPER AND A JOB OR INCOME THAT WILL PROVIDE THESE 30 plus THINGS.

ALL OF THESE ARE POSSIBLE NOW. WHY WAIT? The sad part of all is that the rate of cost for any of the 30 plus essentials for living cost the same whether you make ten thousand dollars a year or a million dollars a year.

THE ONLY THING BLOCKING THE DOOR TO THE AMERICAN DREAM IS THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; THAT DREAM COULD BE NOW. WHY SHOULD THE POOR WAIT UNTIL TOMORROW TO EAT– WHILE THE RICH GET RICHER? internetfreepress.com.

READ MY BOOKS FREE CLICK ON LINKS BELOW:

Born out of the sun 2014

Mixturism

3 steps to Success

Why We Dream

The Problem With Public Education

Words Every Good Reader Knows

Words Every Good Reader Knows (SPANISH VERSION)

Golden Age 21  MIXTURISM   (Mix-TUR-ism)

 

open mind 2 pix

The failure of 19th century Capitalism and the failure of 20th century Socialism will make straight the path for American Mixturism to transform the poor nations of the world from rags to riches and the wealthy nations from great to super-great in the 21st century.
All lands of planet Earth will become the promised land of milk and honey.

Endowed with Democracy, an individual Bill Of Rights, and the flexible economic, ethical, and political system of MIXTURISM, there are no problems which people cannot solve.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CALLS FOR AN ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF MIXTURISM, NOT CAPITALISM, NOT SOCIALISM, BUT A MIX OF BOTH PRIVATE AND PUBLIC ENTERPRISES…

Philosophy of Mixturism

Mixturism is a mixing of private and public enterprise in any activity of a socio-economic system without any fixed ratio so that the needs of all people in the society can be met and progress promoted for all the people. The mixing of private and public enterprise, or the partnership of private and public enterprise, can solve all economic problems for people.

If public enterprise can do a better job than private enterprise in any area of endeavor, then let public enterprise do the job. When private enterprise can do a better job than public enterprise, then public enterprise must give way to private enterprise. When neither private nor public enterprise by itself can fill the vacuum that exists in economic development, then private and public enterprise must form a partnership to fill the vacuum. Meeting the needs of all the people must be the determining factor as to which enterprise, private, public or joint private and public enterprise is used. Private enterprise should own the means of production and distribution; public enterprise should provide the infrastructure such as: roads, bridges, education, heath insurance, Social Security,military, post office, employer of last resort and all the things it presently does and more.

The idea that the use of one economic system can meet the needs of all the people is absurd. In order to encompass the different abilities, needs and desires of all people, economic systems must be flexible.

Mixturism unlike other “isms,” does not put people into straightjackets as they try to solve their economic problems. Other “isms” allow for only certain methods to be used in solving problems and limit the number of solutions acceptable to the “isms.”
In Miixturism, the solution to the problem is deemed more important than the method used to find the solution or the method by which the solution is put into operation.

The use of Mixturism would not destroy any system that presently exists, but would call for the use of what is good in all systems in order to solve problems.

Mixturism would inject enough private enterprise into those economic systems which do not primarily use private enterprise in order to provide incentives that are needed to motivate people to develop their economy for their own benefit, as well as for the benefit of all people.

The chief goal of people is to live their duration on earth in the “best possible fashion.” Progress, or achievement of the “best possible fashion,” is anything, which leads to every person having the best of all goods, and services that are needed for quality living.
Governments have three main functions: First, to guarantee the rights and freedoms of its people; second, to provide a political and economic system whereby the people can have quality living; and third, provide their part of a UN peace keeping force strong enough to guarantee peach on earth.

Any government, which does not guarantee its people the means to obtain jobs at wages high enough for quality living, has fallen short of its duty to its people. Through the philosophy of Mixturism and the understanding of Nature’s Basic Law of Economics, a government can provide and guarantee quality living for all its people by creating a Reserve-Retraining Work Force which would eliminate unemployment. The question that must be asked: are there people resources and natural resources available to produce goods and services? If the answer is yes, governments or private enterprises must produce the capital that is needed to bring together these resources so the goods and services needed and desired can be produced. Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution gives Congress the power it needs to by-pass the Federal Reserve (a private banking system) and create the money the Government needs, without out borrowing money. All people live today, not some times in the future. Why should any percentage of the people have to wait for better economic times just to have the 30 essentials for living when it would be so easy?

Nature’s Basic Law of Economics

Nature’s Basic Law of Economics states: there are only two kinds of resources—people resources and natural resources. All goods and services are produced when people resources work with natural resources. As long as these two resources are available, there is no reason for not producing the goods and services needed and wanted by the people of the world.

Money should be used as a medium of exchange to facilitate the exchange of people’s productivity. If there is a shortage of money, governments have the responsibility to supply the money necessary.

There is no excuse for a depression or a recession unless some natural disaster renders the combination of people resources and natural resources unworkable.

It is not a natural disaster that afflicts the world. The disaster is the result of the abysmal ignorance of government officials concerning Nature’s Basic Law of Economics. That disaster has names such as “recession,” “inflation,” “welfare,” “unemployment,” “crime,” and “poverty.” Bringing together people resources and natural resources in full employment at quality wages is the first task of government officials—when they learn Nature’s Basic Law of Economics, the whole world will benefit.

People talk of everything in terms of money, when they should be talking in terms of people resources and natural resources.
Instead of asking how much money a thing will cost, the question should be, how many people and how much in natural resources will be required to produce the good and service? To think of money only as a commodity instead of as a medium of exchange is to make money a barrier to economic prosperity. Money should be used to exchange the goods and services people produce, not impede the flow of economic life.

One often hears, “I’m tired of the Government spending my tax dollars on welfare programs and space flights, etc.” A person making such a statement probably does not realize that we live in an interdependent world. Such a statement reflects the philosophy of money as a commodity, not money as a medium of exchange. A welfare recipient, for example, serves a useful economic purpose—providing employment for “bureaucrats” and spending power for the “bureaucrats” and the welfare recipient. The recipient of government money from space programs, to use a parallel, is also providing the community with the power to exchange goods and services. Instead of the complaint that the government makes to many dollars available, the complaint should be that the government makes too few dollars available.

THE FIVE FINGER  MIXTURIST (Mix-TUR-ist) AGENDA

1.ADEQUATE MONETARY SYSTEM: The three functions of the Federal Reserve private banking system to lower or raise discount rates, to buy or sell securities on the open market, to lower or raise the reserve requirements for member banks are inadequate for maintaining a balanced money supply at all times. By adding a FOURTH AND A FIFTH FUNCTION to the monetary system, a balanced money supply could be achieved. The fourth function would index the PAYROLL TAX on a scale of 1 to 10 which would bring a better balance. The index could be lowered when more money is desired in the consumers pockets and raised when less is needed. NEW MONEY WOULD BE CREATED TO MAKE UP THE DEFICIT, NOT BORROWED FROM CHINA OR ANYONE ELSE. A fifth function could be added by using Article !, Section 8, of the Constitution to coin money and regulate the value there of, and  then– BYPASS THE FEDERAL RESERVE PRIVATE BANKING INDUSTRY and give the money to the Treasury Department. The Treasury could fund infrastructure work, and give money to the states to help them fund programs. States gave up there right to create money when they joined the United States of America.

The American people needs to know that banks BUY and SELL money like all other businesses do; that when a bank pays 2 percent for money and sell it for 8 percent, the banks make 400 percent gross profit and not 6 percent like they would like for you to think. If a merchant pays two dollars for a candy bar and sells it for eight dollars, the gross profit would be 400 percent just like a bank buying money for two dollars and selling it for eight dollars. The gross profit would be 400 percent. Banks are engaged in Loan sharking! ANY INTEREST RATE OVER FIVE PERCENT IS USURY.

CONGRESS NEEDS TO CREATE NEW MONEY EACH YEAR EQUIVALENT TO THE INCREASE IN THE GREED INDEX WHICH IS CALLED INFLATION. INFLATION IS AN EUPHEMISM FOR THEFT. GREED WITH A PRICE MARKER DEVALUES MONEY. Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution gives Congress three way to raise money: taxation, borrowing money, and most important coining money and regulating the value. Congress uses a two leg stool when the stool has three legs. ONLY CONGRESS HAS THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWER TO CREATE MONEY, NOT THE FEDERAL RESERVE PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM.

Article 1 – The Legislative Branch
Section 8 – Powers of Congress ***See to coin money…
**** To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; WHY NOT USE THIS LEG OF A THREE LEG STOOL TO SOLVE AMERICA’S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS? WHY USE ONLY TWO LEGS?

2.RESERVE RETRAINING WORK FORCE: The greatest problem facing America is EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT. This problem can be PERMANENTLY solved by establishing a Reserve Retraining Work force. Everyone would be in the regular work force or in the Reserve-Retraining Work force. All unemployment would be by choice.
It wouldn’t matter which side of the track you were born on, you would go to school free, and in some case the unemployed would get paid a living wage while going to school. Any one could go as far as their mind will let them by making passing grades. Employment offices would mean what they say: employment or education with pay. When old jobs are no longer needed, people must be re-trained for new jobs and get paid while being re-trained.

3. ALL AMERICANS WHO WANT TO OWN A HOME SHOULD BE ABLE TO, REGARDLESS OF INCOME. The Federal Government should endow a HOME LOAN FUND, so anyone making below average wages could borrow money to finance a home at an interest rate from 1% to 2% FOR UP TO
50 YEARS. The Federal Government must become a competitor of the banking industry. Public enterprise has as much right to exist as does private enterprise. The Constitution call for a form of MIXTURISM: business and government working together to meet the needs and desires of all the people.

4. HEALTH CARE SYSTEM: Since the average health care claims run under $20,000, the Federal Government could pay all claims over $20,000 for only 32 billion dollars per 1 trillion dollars of total health care cost. Without having to worry about claims for over $20,000, small businesses and small organizations could self-insure which would put real competition in the insurance industry where none now exist. THIS WILL LEAD TO A SINGLE PAY UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. Obama Care is a giant step toward Universal Health Care. Paying all claims over $20,000 is the next best step. Public enterprise has as much right to exist as does private enterprise. All the Government wants and needs to do is provide the money to pay for health care. The Government doesn’t want to own doctors or hospitals. It just wants to make sure doctors and hospitals get paid. The last thing that Government wants or needs to do is take over doctors and hospitals. A poor argument made by those who oppose Universal Health Care.

5. A FIRST CLASS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM CAN BEST BE ESTABLISHED BY HAVING THE TEACHER BECOME THE DIRECTOR OF A PLANNED PROGRAM THAT WILL REACH ALL OBJECTIVES DESIRED USING THE BEST OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. WE COULD SPEND A FEW MILLION  DOLLARS ON EVERY COURSE BEING TAUGHT IN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE THAT WOULD TEACH EVERY THING KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT BY EXPERTS WHICH WOULD COST A LOT LESS THAN WHAT WE ARE NOW SPENDING ON EDUCATION, AND IT WOULD ALLOW ALL TEACHERS TO DO A SUPER JOB OF TEACHING. Every person regardless of which side of the track they were born on; they should go to school free as far as their mind will take them. We could create an On Line Digital University with the greatest teachers and make it free to anyone willing to do the work…THE GREATEST PART OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE IS EDUCATION.

THE DREAM OF THE VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE ON PLANET EARTH IS NOT TO BECOME MILLIONAIRES; BUT TO HAVE THE 30 plus ESSENTIALS FOR LIVING, NOT JUST EXISTING.
THE 30 plus ESSENTIALS OF LIFE FOR LIVING –NOT JUST EXISTING ARE: ROOF OVER THEIR HEAD, CLOTHES ON THEIR BACK, FOOD ON THE TABLE, AUTOMOBILE, EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, ALARM CLOCK, LIGHTS ON, WATER RUNNING, TOILET FLUSHING, AIR CONDITION, STOVE, REFRIGERATOR, DISH WASHER, WASHING MACHINE, CLOTHES DRYER, MICROWAVE, COFFEE POT, BATH TUB, SHOWER, FURNITURE, LINENS AND THINGS, TV SET, COMPUTER, HOUSE PHONE, CELL PHONE, VACUUM CLEANER, VACATION, TOILET PAPER AND A JOB OR INCOME THAT WILL PROVIDE THESE 30 plus THINGS. ALL OF THESE ARE POSSIBLE NOW. WHY WAIT? The sad part of all is that the rate of cost for any of the 30 plus essentials for living cost the same whether you make ten thousand dollars a year or a million dollars a year.

THE ONLY THING BLOCKING THE DOOR TO THE AMERICAN DREAM IS THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; THAT DREAM COULD BE NOW. WHY SHOULD THE POOR WAIT UNTIL TOMORROW TO EAT– WHILE THE RICH GET RICHER? internetfreepress.com. 

READ MY BOOKS FREE CLICK ON LINKS BELOW:

Born out of the sun 2014

Mixturism

3 steps to Success

Why We Dream

The Problem With Public Education

Words Every Good Reader Knows

Words Every Good Reader Knows (SPANISH VERSION)

http://www.digitaluniversityofamerica.com

Digital University of America

Digital University of America

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REGISTER NOW.
SEE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW MAP.

NOW THROUGH THIS WEBSITE, YOU CAN GET AN EDUCATION AND A  COLLEGE DEGREE ABSOLUTELY FREE. NO PURCHASES OF ANY KIND ARE REQUIRED. THE COST TO YOU IS ZERO.
THIS WEBSITE IS MADE POSSIBLE BY A GRANT FROM JAMES M. CARROLL SR. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS  FROM PEOPLE  LIKE YOU  WHO BELIEVE THAT EDUCATION IS A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF WHAT MAKES AMERICA GREAT, AND THAT ANY PERSON WILLING TO DO THE HARD WORK TO GET AN EDUCATION SHOULD NOT HAVE TO GO IN DEBT. I CHALLENGE ALL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES THAT TAKE TAXPAYER DOLLARS TO MAKE ALL OF THEIR ONLINE COURSES FREE.
The University of Bologna was founded in 1088AD in Italy. It was the first university and is the oldest in the world. Students sat in a desk, listened to professors, took notes and stayed up all night memorizing facts that in the digital age you can Google in a second.
 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES OF TODAY HAVE NOT CHANGED VERY MUCH FROM THE BEGINNING. THEY HAVE JUST GOT BIGGER AND MORE EXPENSIVE.
Digital University of America is a Twenty First Century University. When you finish your education at DUOA, you will have a book of over 500 essays between two covers with Digital university of America on the front cover and a copy of your degree on the back cover which you will be proud to put on any employer’s desk when looking for a job. YOU WILL HAVE MORE THAN JUST A ONE OR TWO PAGE TRANSCRIPT WITH GRADES ON IT TO SHOW.

digitalzzz                 Copyright 2015 by Digital University of America…

TO REGISTER: SEND NAME … FIRST, MIDDLE AND LAST NAME …ADDRESS…DATE OF BIRTH…EMAIL …PHONE NUMBER… AND A SMALL PHOTO OF YOURSELF TO: DIGITAL UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA…2201 SOUTHERN SHADE BLVD…KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE 37932…OR EMAIL IT TO: DUOAFREE@GMAIL.COM

YOU WILL BE SENT YOUR STUDENT ID NUMBER AND AN EMAIL ADDRESS SO THAT YOU CAN SEND YOUR ESSAY TO  DIGITAL UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA  AFTER YOU FINISH EACH LESSON.

THERE ARE NO REQUIREMENTS EXCEPT: You will need to have a computer, Internet access, a legal name, address and an ID number to be issued when you register, be able to read English and  posses a GENUINE DESIRE to get an education. You don’t have to be eighteen. You don’t have to have a high school diploma. You can be an elementary school dropout.

IF YOU CAN READ, THE WORLD IS YOURS AND EVERYTHING THAT’S IN IT ON A SILVER PLATTER. EIGHTY- FIVE PERCENT OF ANY EDUCATION IS KNOWING HOW TO READ.

If you do not have a computer, the public library will let you use theirs, or we will try to help you get one.

If you already have a College Degree, you can get a Master’s Degree by following the Course of Study and doing a Master’s Thesis. If you have a Master’s Degree, you can get a Doctor of Philosophy by following the Course of Study and doing a Doctoral  Dissertation.

In order to earn credit, you must follow the instructions as they pertain to all lessons, completing the reading and video assignments, and compose a one page essay  on each lesson based on your own ideas and ideas of others. You will not be bogged down by having to remember Dates, Facts, and Figures. There are no test to take. You will have a clear mind for learning.

You will follow a COURSE of STUDY that will take you on a CHRONOLOGICAL JOURNEY  from the inception of the Universe to the Present. This march through time will review the contribution of Great Individuals, their ideas and concepts, Great World Events, and Great Philosophical and Scientific Ideas – along with the impact these revelations and innovations had on civilization and are still having today. When you finish this Course of Study, you will know a lot about everything and much more about your Major Subject.

According to Dr. Albert Edward Wiggam, if you wish to become an educated person– you will ask yourself the three questions below every day of your life. If you ask and answer them, they will come to your aid in solving every problem and become the background of your clearest and most effective thinking.

The ABC’s of Education:

A. DO I REALLY WANT TO KNOW THE TRUTH ABOUT POLITICS, BUSINESS, SCIENCE, RELIGION, MORALS, AND LIFE, OR DO I MERELY WANT TO PROVE THAT THE NOTIONS I ALREADY HAVE ABOUT THESE THINGS ARE CORRECT?

B. AM I WILLING TO LAY ASIDE THE CONVICTIONS OF A LIFE TIME AND ALL THE TRADITIONS AND BELIEFS OF HISTORY, AND ALL THE CUSTOMS OF MY SOCIAL CLASS WHEN I COME INTO THE PRESENCE OF A NEW FACT, LONG ENOUGH TO FIND OUT WHETHER OR NOT THIS NEW FACT OUGHT TO CHANGE MY POINT OF VIEW?

C. HAVE I EVER, WITHOUT MENTAL RESERVATION, PREJUDICE, BIAS, SET NOTIONS AND DOGMAS, SURRENDERED MY HEART AND MIND COMPLETELY TO THE EXAMINATION OF THE REASONS FOR MY MOST CHERISHED OPINIONS; THAT IS, HAVE I SURRENDERED MY HEART AND MIND COMPLETELY TO AN ACCEPTANCE OF THE TRUTH, WHEREVER IT LEADS ME?

The greatest part of any education is the ability to read. If you can read, the earth and everything that’s in it is yours on a silver platter.  You don’t need a teacher to learn about everything. Great people of the past were self-educated.This website makes it easy for you by linking you directly to the information on each lesson.
AS YOU START YOUR QUEST OF AN EDUCATION, KEEP THESE QUESTIONS IN MIND: WHY WERE THESE GREAT EVENTS, GREAT INDIVIDUALS, AND GREAT IDEAS IMPORTANT, WHAT IMPACT DID THEY HAVE ON CIVILIZATION AND HOW DO THEY STILL INFLUENCE  US TODAY.

LESSONS ARE IN NUMERICAL ORDER; GREAT EVENTS, GREAT INDIVIDUALS, AND GREAT IDEAS ARE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.

1- EVENT…13 BILLION YEARS AGO… THE NO BEGINNING AND NO ENDING OF A RECYCLING  UNIVERSE… All of the energy and matter in the Universe that exist have always existed, and will always exist. Space is infinite; it has no borders

Due to the curvature of space, about every 13 to 15 billion years, all the energy and matter in the Universe comes back together again and explodes in all directions from the center out going from zero to near the speed of light in less than one billionth of a second which recycles the universe all over again…

INSTRUCTIONS: Click on the links below; Read and listen to all of the information, and then write a one page essay and Email it to Digital University of America.

a-The Big Bang Theory Site

b- In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. – YouTube

c-In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth (4) – YouTube

d- What is an essay | Essay Definition – UK Essays

2- EVENTS/IDEAS: FORMATION OF THE SUN…Nuclear fusion was started… all that is began to come forth. As the energy and matter cool, billions of suns begin to form. Atoms are created and combine to form hydrogen; hydrogen  atoms fuse together to form helium; nuclear fusion is started; the lost mass is smashed into billions of particles, which creates gravity with a centripetal and centrifugal forces…

a-How was the Sun formed? – NASA

b-How the Sun was Born – YouTube

c-Sun – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d-The Sun – Universe Today

e- Do your own research…until you are satisfied with the amount of knowledge you have gained… and then write your essay.

3- EVENTS/IDEAS: HOW OLD IS THE EARTH?…Scientists have calculated that Earth is 4.54 billion years old … 

a-Born out of the sun 2014

b.How Was Earth Formed? – Space.com

c.BBC Earth – Timeline – The Earth formed from a vast gas and dust

d. A perfect planet…the formation of the earthYouTube

4- EVENTS/IDEAS: PREHISTORY…THE ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule.

a..Prehistoric Time Line – National Geographic

b.The First Living Things — The Outline of History by H. G. Wells

c.The Age of Lowland Life

5- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT ARE DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM?…Computers are often called data processing machines or information processing machines.

Data is like the symbols on your computer keyboard; information is something that can be made from those symbols,such as: E=MC2, an Einstien formula; knowledge is knowing what each of those symbols in the information means; wisdom is knowing what you can or cannot do with that knowledge that is encompassed in that formula.

INSTRUCTIONS: click on the links below. When you read and listen and do your own research, write your essay.

a. Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom – Oregon Technology

b..The Wisdom of God | Bible.org

6. SPECIAL TOPICS… WHAT IS SUCCESS?…We often think of being a success in status and financial terms…

Since you are doing this Course of Study in order to be successful, we need to examine what success is… Since everything begins with just an idea, you might say that success is the ability to convert an idea from the abstract to the concrete. Success could be the ability to satisfy your innate desires and reach your objectives while staying within the boundaries of the society in which you live.

INSTRUCTIONS: Click on to the links below read and listen, and do your own research; then write your own essay on success. Two great books you should read: Three Steps to Success and Think and Grow Rich

a. .What is Success? – YouTube

b. .What Is the Definition of Success Anyway? | Anna Partridge

c.Napoleon HillThink And Grow RichFull Length YouTube

d. 3 steps to Success

 7- EVENTS/IDEAS: 8,000-3,000BC…CIVILIZATION BEGINS… People stopped being hunters and gatherers and settle down to farming and domesticating animals. How did this event changed history forever?
Instructions: click on to the links below to read and listen, and then do your own search before writing your own essay.

a.History of the world – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION

c.The History of the World’s Civilizations in 2 Minutes – YouTube

8- EVENTS/IDEAS: 3000BC…  RAMESSES I… founding Pharaoh of ancient Egypt … Hieroglyphics,  engineering and irrigation of land…Learn about the Pharaohs and the Ancient Egyptian Civilization … 

a. Ra messes I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Ramesses I: The Search for the Lost Pharaoh

c.Pharaoh – Ramses (part 1) – YouTube

9- EVENTS/IDEAS: 3000BC..BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION IN EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA… is usually held to have begun around 3000 BC. 

a. FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT

b.Mesopotamia (Sumerians, first civilization on earth) – YouTube

c.Architectural Marvels of Ancient Mesopotamia – Fairfield

d.What have you learned ? Tell us in your essay.

10- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2500BC..PYRAMIDS… INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION…The great pyramids at Giza in Egypt are built about this time… 

a.Early Civilization in the Indus Valley [ushistory.org]

b.The Remarkable Indus Valley Civilization – Today I Found Out

c.Ancient Indus River Valley CivilizationYouTube

11- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2000BC…  SECRETS OF STONEHENGE…Stonehenge may be the best-known and most mysterious relic of prehistory.

a. The Secrets of StonehengeYouTube

b.Stonehenge Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles ..

c.10 facts about Stonehenge | History Extra

d. What is your theory?

12- A MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS HISTORY?…is a study of historiography that was written by the English historian E. H. Carr.

a. The History Guide — What is History?

b.History in Focus: What is History? – Institute of Historical Research

c.What is HistoryYouTube

13- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS BIOLOGY?…Biology is the science of life. Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin , evolution and distribution of living organisms.

14- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1760BC…BEGINNING OF CIVILIZATION IN CHINA… with the first historical dynasty, the Shang, and the first writing and bronze artworks…

a.Ancient China – Dynasties of Power (Documentary) – YouTub

b.Shang dynasty | Chinese history | Britannica.com

c.Great Wall of China: Great Wall Tours, Facts, History, Photos

d. Search all the links on each article.

15-HAMMURABI:1750BC… Hammurabi… King of Egypt…Writing, First written code of law, and monumental architecture.

a.Code of HammurabiLegal History and Philosophy

b.Code of Hammurabi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Code Of Law Season 3 – YouTu

16- MOSES: 1393BC-1273BC… Moses is known as the most influential prophet in Judaism; he led the Israelite slaves to freedom…

a.Who Was Moses? Was He More than an Exodus Hero? – Biblical

b.The Exodus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Biblical Archaeology Society: Network Home

d.The Story of Moses, – YouTube

e.If you don’t have a library card, you should get one. The library has a world of free information.

17- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SCIENCE?…  to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works.

a.What is science? – Understanding Science

b.What is scienceYouTube

c.Science – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

18- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1250BC-1240BC…TROJAN WARS…Bronze Age Conflicts… A recent study published by German archaeologists  sheds  light on the extent of Bronzeage  in northern Europe.

a. Trojan War – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

b.Truth of Troy: Trojan War StoryYouTube

c.Trojan War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Do your search.

19- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1027BC-256BC…ZHOU DYNASTY.. .The Zhou Dynasty, the longest in Chinese history, saw ancient China dramatically transformed…

a. Zhou dynasty | Chinese history | Britannica.com

b.Zhou dynasty – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Zhou DynastyYouTube

d. Your essays should be about a page.

20- EVENTS/IDEAS: approx.1000BC… ZOROASTER… WORLD OLDEST RELIGION…Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed worldreligions. e …

a. ZOROASTER – World History

b.The Ancient Religion of ZoroastrianismYouTube

c.Zoroastrianism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. WHAT DO YOU  THINK OF RELIGION?

21- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1000BC…BEGINNING OF SANSKRIT LITERATURE..The Sanskrit literature of India dates back in oral tradition to the middle …

a.Sanskrit and Indian Civilization – YouTube

b.Origin and Development of Sanskrit – Hinduwebsite.com

c.Sanskrit – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d  How does Western Language relate to Sanskrit?

22- EVENTS/IDEAS: mid.800s BC …THE DELPHI ORACLE.. Dating back to 1400 BC, the Oracle of Delphi was the most important shrine in all Greece…

a.The Oracle of Delphi—Was She Really Stoned? – Biblical

b.The Oracle of DelphiYouTube

c.The Oracle at Delphi – PBS

23- EVENTS/IDEAS: 872BC…THE FOUNDING OF CARTHAGE…Carthage is indisputably of key importance to Roman history.

a. Carthage – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b.CARTHAGE – THE RISE AND FALL – YouTube

c. Carthage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.You should try to write at least three quarters of a page on each lesson.

24- EVENTS/IDEAS: 820BC…LAWS OF LYCURGUS…The oracle told Lycurgus that his prayers had been heard and that the state which observed the laws of Lycurgus…

a. Lycurgus of Sparta – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Laws of Lycurgus: Lawgiver of Sparta – YouTube

c.L Y C U R G U S – History of Greece

25- HOMER: 800BCE-701BC… Homer was an epic poet, who is most known for being the literary genius behind both the Iliad and the Odyssey.

a.Homer – Poet – Biography.com

b.Homer’s Odyssey (story) – YouTube

c.Homer | Greek poet | Britannica.com

d.The Iliad: Homer Biography – Cliffs Notes

e.The Illiad Summary – Schoolbytes

f.The Odyssey at a Glance – Cliffs Notes

26- EVENTS/IDEAS: 776BC… THE OLYMPIC GAMES…THE ancient Olympic Games, first staged in 776 BC, were part of a religious festival for the god Zeus.

a. History – Ancient Olympics – First Olympic Games History from Olympia

b.Olympic Games – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.The History of the OlympicsYouTube

27- EVENTS/IDEAS: 753BC…THE FOUNDING OF ROME…The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology.

a.Myths and Legends – The Founding of Rome – YouTube

b.Myths and Legends Founding of Rome – Ancient/Classical History

c.Founding of Rome – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSo great as the respect that all classes had for his judgment, reason and fairness, that Solon was given carte blanche to rewrite the laws and …

28- SOLON: 594BC… becomes governor of Athens…Laws of Solon…Solon was given carte blanche to rewrite the laws and …Athens a Constitution…

a. Birth of Democracy: Solon the Lawgiver – Agathe.gr

b.Solon an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and elegiac poet – YouTube

c. Solon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

29- LORD GAUTAMA BUDDHA: 563BCE-480BC …Lord Buddha is known as the founder of Buddhism, and is regarded as The Supreme Buddha…

a. Gautama Buddha – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Gautama BuddhaYouTube

c.THE BASIC TEACHING OF BUDDHA – San Francisco State University

30- EVENTS/IDEAS: 586BC..THE FALL OF TYRE AND THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM…The destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple carried with it not only the

a. The Siege of JerusalemYouTube

b. The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70, by Flavius Josephus

c. The Romans Destroy the Temple at Jerusalem, 70 AD

d. There are many sources of information you can find.

31- SPECIAL TOPIC…LEARN TO TYPE THE EASY WAY…

a.Learn to Touch Type in just One Hour – Guaranteed !! – YouTub

b.How to Teach Yourself to Touch Type: 5 Steps

c.How to Type Faster: Tips and Tricks to Master the Keyboard – Hongkiat

32- CONFUCIUS: 1551BC-1479BC… Confucius… a Chinese philosopher whose principles were based on common Chinese traditions; he also coined “The Golden Rule.”

a.Who Was Confucius? – China Family Adventure

b.What Confucius Taught by Sanderson Beck

c Confucius Analects Essay – Critical Essays – eNotes.com.

d.The Life of Confucius animation.divxYouTube

33- EVENTS/IDEAS: 546BC-330BC… PERSIAN EMPIRE…The Persian Empire is any of a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia ( Iran).

a.Kingdoms of PersiaPersia – The History Files

b.Achaemenid Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Achaemenid Empire – Ancient History – World Map

34- EVENTS/IDEAS: 538BC The fall of Babylon…

a .Cyrus takes Babylon (539 BCE) – Livius

b.The Fall of Babylon – Ancient Mesopotamia – Tripod

c. Ancient Hanging Gardens of BabylonYouTube

35- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS NATURE?…the physical world and everything in it that is not made by people.

a. NatureWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Wonderful Earth Nature film – YouTube

c. NatureSummary and Analysis – CliffsNotes

36- AESCHYLUS: 523BC-456BC… Aeschylus was a Greek tragedian…known as the “father of tragedy,”

a .Aeschylus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.AeschylusYouTube

c Aeschylus – Ancient Greece – Classical Literature

d.Who was Aeschylus? – Ancient Greek Plays – Quatr.us

37-SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY…How to write a standard essay in English.

a. How to Write an Essay (with Sample Essays) – wikiHow

b.How to Write an Effective EssayYouTube

c.EssayWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

38- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS METAPHYSICS?… is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being…

a. What Is Metaphysics – A Modern Metaphysical Perspective

b.SparkNotes: Aristotle (384–322 B.C.): Metaphysics: Books Alpha to

39- SOPHOCLES: 497BCE-406BC… Sophocles wrote 120 plays during the span of his life…Sophocles (497 BC406 BC) A influential dramatist.

a. Sophocles – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Sophocles Biography – CliffsNotes

c.The History Of Sophocles ! – YouTube

40- PERICLES: 495BCE-429BC… the most prominent general of Athens during the Golden Age…Ancient Greek statesman… 

a. Pericles – General – Biography.com

b.Pericles Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

c.Pericles Parthenon Athenian GoldenAge – YouTube

41- EVENTS/IDEAS: 490BC…THE BATTLE OF MARATHON…The battle of Marathon is one of history’s most famous military engagements.

a.The Battle of Marathon, 490 BC – EyeWitness to History

b.THE BATTLE OF MARATHON 490 BCYouTube

c.Battle of Marathon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

42- EVENTS/IDEAS: 480BC-404BC…  GOLDEN AGE…of Athenian democracy…Democracy, which had prevailed during AthensGolden Age… 

a.History of Greece: The Golden Age of Greece

b.The Golden Age of Ancient GreeceYouTube

c.Greece: Secrets of the Past – The Golden Age of Greece

43- MAJOR SUBJECT… GEOLOGY…The combination of continents, oceans, and atmosphere makes Earth unique ..

a.How the Earth works (as seen from space) – All parts – YouTube

b.Gaia hypothesis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Spark Notes: The Good Earth: Themes, Motifs & Symbol

44- EURIPIDES: 485BCE-406BC… Euripides playwright of classical Athens…Learn more about Euripides, the last of classical Athens’s three great tragic dramatists, following Aeschylus and Sophocles, at Biography.com.

a.EuripidesPlaywright – Biography.com

b.FOR YOUR NEXT DREAM 2 – YouTube

c.Euripides – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

45- HERODOTUS: 484BC-425BC…  is referred to as “the father of history,” the only literary work he is known to have produced was that of the record of his inquiry.

a.Herodotus Greek historian father of history – Age of the Sage

b.Herodotus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.The Histories by Herodotus | SummaryYouTube

d. Do your search until you know what you want to know. You are not limited.

46- SOCRATES: 470BC-399BC Socrates was a Greek philosopher who is renowned as one of the founders of western philosophy.

a.Socrates – Philosopher – Biography.com

b.Socrates – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

c.The Ideas of SocratesYouTube

d. See how many sources of information you can find on this subject.

47- THUCYDIDES: 460BC-395BC… Thucydides was an Athenian historian and philosopher . 

a.Thucydides: A Master HistorianYouTube

b.Thucydides – Ancient HistoryHISTORY.com

c.Greek Historian Thucydides: Biography, Histories & Speeches

48- HIPPOCRATES: 460BC-370BC… physician…  Known as the Father of Medicine.

a.Hippocrates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Hippocrates The Father of Medicine – Classical Wisdom Weekly

c.Hippocrates | History in Minutes #8 – YouTube

d.Only you can limit your education.

49- DEMOCRITUS…460BCE…Many consider Democritus to be the “father of modern science”

a. Democritus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Democritus | Greek philosopher | Britannica.com

c .Democritus | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

a.What is Mathematics? – YouTube

b What is Mathematics?

c..Mathematics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

51- ARISTOPHANES: 446BC-386BC…  is known as an Athenian comic playwright…the greatest representative of ancient Greek comedy.

a. Aristophanes‘ Clouds Study Guide – University College London

b.Aristophanes Biography – life, family, death, old, information, born

c.The frogs by Aristophanes part 1 HD – YouTube

52- PLATO: 424BC-348BC… Plato was a Greek philosopher and mathematician, who founded the first institution, “The Academy.”

a. Plato: The Republic | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b. Plato: Theory of Knowledge

c. PHILOSOPHY – PlatoYouTube

d. Learn all you want to know about Plato; then write your own essay.

53- EVENTS/IDEAS: 420BC…PLAGUE OF ATHENS…an outbreak of bubonic plague which occurred there in ….

a. Plague of Athens – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The plague of Athens: epidemiology and paleontology.

c. A mysterious illness kills one third of Athenians – YouTube

54- EVENTS/IDEAS: 415BC… SIEGE OF SYRACUSE…Siege of Syracuse (415-413)… one of the most important campaigns during the Peloponnese War.

a.Siege of SyracuseYouTube

b.The Siege of Syracuse – Livius

c.Military History: Ancient Rome – Bible History Online

55-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS RHETORIC?…Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. And the art of persuasion.

a. Rhetoric – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Purdue OWL: Introduction to RhetoricYouTube

c. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis: 15 Steps (with Pictures)

56- EVENTS/IDEAS: 399BC… Death and Trial of Socrates…

a. The Death of Socrates – Jacques-Louis David

b.The Death Of Socrates (part 1) – YouTube

c..Trial of Socrates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

57-MAJOR SUBJECT…. WHAT IS ENGLISH GRAMMAR?… English grammar rules refer to sentence structure and parts of speech…14 marks of punctuation…

a .English grammarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Learn English Grammar: The Sentence – YouTube

c.ACT Spark-notes Test Prep: Basic Grammar and Usage

d. What Are the Fourteen Punctuation Marks in English Grammar?

58- ARISTOTLE: 384BC-322BC… a Greek philosopher and scientist who was taught by Plato…  the “first genuine scientist.”…

a. Aristotle – Philosopher – Biography.com

b.PHILOSOPHY – AristotleYouTube

c.The Best Teaching Quotes Ever | Take-part

d. Why was Aristotle considered to be the first genuine scientist?

59- POTLEMY I SOTER: 367BC-283BC… Ptolemy I Soter was a Macedonian General, serving under Alexander the Great.

a.Ptolemy I Soter, the First King of Ancient Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty

b.Ptolemy I – Ancient History Encyclopedia

c.Ptolemy I SoterYouTube

d. what would you like to remember about Ptolemy?

60- ALEXANDER THE GREAT: 356BC-323BC.. took the thrown of the Macedonian Kingdom at the age of 20. He spent much of his rule leading a military campaign…

a. Alexander the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Alexander the Great History Channel Documentary – YouTube

c.Alexander the Great: 356-323 – Then Again

d. Do your own research…

61- EVENTS/IDEAS: 404 BC…END OF THE PELOPONNESE WAR…Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities.

a. Peloponnesian War | ancient Greek history | Britannica.com

b.Peloponnesian WarYouTube

c. History of the Peloponnesian War Summary – eNotes.com

62-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ARITHMETIC?… means dealing with certain facts that we know, about number.

a. Arithmetic Mean (Average) – GMAT Math Study Guide

b. Arithmetic mean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Arithmetic Sequence definitionYouTube

d. If you are not satisfied with the choices above, find your own…

63- EVENTS/IDEAS: 300BC…ROMAN CONQUEST OF GREECE…devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities… 

a. How did the Romans conquer classical Greece? – YouTube

b.The Roman Period in Greece – History of Greece

c.The Creation, the Flood, and Gilgamesh – CliffsNotes

64- ARCHIMEDES …: 287BCE-212BC… one of the greatest mathematicians of all time…

a.Archimedes – Hellenistic Mathematics – The Story of Mathematics

b. Greek MathematicsThe Story of Mathematics

c.The Story of MathsYouTube

65- EVENTS/IDEAS: 259BC- 209BC…QUIN SHI HUANG……First true emperor of China…As the first emperor of China..

a. Quin Shi HuangDi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

b.The First Emperor of ChinaYouTube

c.The First Emperor of China – Pearson Readers

66- EVENTS/IDEAS: 218BC-146BC…RISE OF ROME TO THE STATUS OF SUPER POWER…an absolute superpower …a nation that is dominant …

a. Ancient Rome – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b. Crash Course World History #10 – YouTube

c. Polybius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

67-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PHYSICS?...physics utilizes the scientific method to formulate and test hypotheses that are based on observation of the natural world.  …

a.What is Physics? – Inspiration – YouTube

b. PhysicsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.What is physics?| Explore | physics.org

68- EVENTS/IDEAS: 200BC…  ANTIKYTHERA MACHINE… a clock-like machine consisting of more than 30 precise, hand-cut bronze gears.

a. Antikythera mechanism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Antikythera mechanism working model.mov – YouTube

c.2000-year-old Antikythera computer comes back to life – The Guardian

69- EVENTS/IDEAS: 151-146BC…THE FALL OF ANCIENT GREECE… Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted …. 

a. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece | History Today

b. The history of ancient GreeceYouTube

c. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece – Princeton University Press

70-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS POETRY?…Poetry is many things to many people. Homer, John Milton, Christopher Marlowe, and of course Shakespeare have each given…

a. What Is Poetry? | NEA

b.Rhythm, Feet and Meter in PoetryYouTube

c.How to Analyze Poetry – CliffsNotes

71-  LUCRETIUS : c.99BCE-c.55BC…  a roman poet and philosopher whose only work which is an “epic philosophical poem” that translates in English…

a. Lucretius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Lucretius | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

c. Introduction to Lucretius: On the Nature of Things – Epicurus.info

72- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ALGEBRA?…Algebra is a branch of mathematics dealing with symbols and the rules for manipulating those symbols.

a. Algebra 1 – How to find three consecutive numbers with a YouTube

b.Algebra 1 – How to find three consecutive numbers with a YouTube

c .AlgebraWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. History of algebraWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

73- VIRGIL : 70BCE-19BC… Virgil was a poet of ancient Rome who is known traditionally as being one of Rome’s greatest poets of all time…

a. Virgil – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Virgil | Roman poet | Britannica.com

c. Vergil – Ancient Rome – Classical Literature

74- JULIUS CAESAR: 48BC-31BC… Julius Caesar and Augustus establish monarchy in the Roman Empire.

a. Augustus – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

b. THE ROMAN EMPIRE – JULIUS CAESARYouTube

c. Julius CaesarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

75- EVENTS/IDEAS: By 270 BCE… ROME CONTROLLED ALL OF ITALY…conquered Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor.

a. History of the Roman Empire, the Golden age of Rome

b. Why the Roman Empire had the Greatest Golden Age YouTube

c .Ancient Rome – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

76- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS GEOMETRY?…Geometry is the visual study of shapes, sizes, patterns, and positions.

a. Geometry — from Wolfram MathWorld

b. Geometry Lesson 1 – Building Blocks of GeometryYouTube

c. Geometry/Introduction – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

d. The objective here is not to make a mathematician out of you, but help you find out if you want to major in math.

77-JESUS CHRIST…Jesus Christ: 5BC-30AD… Jesus is the central figure in the Christian faith, and thought to be the “Son of God.” …

a. Jesus in Christianity – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Documentary | Frontline – From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians

c. From Jesus To Christ – The First Christians – PBS

78- APOLLONIUS OF TYANA… 3BC-100AD… Apollonius was a Greek philosopher around the time of Christ…The charismatic teacher and miracle worker… 

a. Apollonius of Tyana -the Real Jesus of the New Testament

b. Apollonius of Tyana – New World Encyclopedia

c .ApolloniusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

79- “ST. PAUL” THE APOSTLE… 5-67AD… is often revered as one of the most influential figures of the Apostolic Age… to teach the gospel of Christ to the 1st century world.

a. Saint Paul, the Apostle | Christian Apostle | Britannica.com

b.The Church of St Paul the Apostle

c. The Life of Paul, the ApostleYouTube

80-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TRIGONOMETRY?... defines relations between elements of a triangle. In a triangle, there are six basic elements: 3 sides and 3 angles. ..

a. What Is Trigonometry? – Live Science

b. Basic TrigonometryYouTube

c.TrigonometryWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

81- EVENTS/IDEAS: 33-36AD…THE TRIAL AND CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS… the accounts of the arrest, trial, and crucifixion of Jesus contained in the Bible history…

a. The Arrest, trial and Crucifixion | The Living Word Library

b. Questions and Answers Concerning the Arrest, Trial, and Crucifixion

c. Sanhedrin trial of Jesus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

82- PLUTARCH: c.46-c.125AD… a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist…known in English as Plutarch…

a .Plutarch – Academic – Biography.com

b. Plutarch (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c.Plutarch’s Morals, vol. 3 – Online Library of Liberty

83- EPICTETUS: c.55-135AD… a stoic philosopher whose teachings were transcribed by his pupil.

a. Epictetus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Ignorance is Not an Excuse | The Boothby Institute

c. The Philosophy and Ethics of EpictetusYouTube

84- TACITUS: c.56-c.117AD… Tacitus was a historian and a senator of the Roman Empire.

a. Tacitus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.TacitusYouTube

c.Tacitus | Roman historian | Britannica.com

85- NICOMACHUS: 60-120AD… an important Greek mathematician who wrote about the mystical properties of numbers.

a. Nicomachus of Gerasa | Roman philosopher and mathematician

b. How the Ancient Greeks shaped modern mathematicsYouTube

c.Greek Legacy: How the Ancient Greeks shaped modern mathematics

86- EVENTS/IDEAS: 64-303AD…PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS …Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire … Emperor Nero executed Christians…

a. Persecution of Christians – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Christian Persecution Quick Facts | Issues at a Glance | The Ethics

c.persecuted christian facts & videos | persecution of – SO4J.com

87- EVENTS/IDEAS: 70AD…THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM…The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 was the decisive event of the First Jewish– Roman War.

a.Siege of Jerusalem (1099) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70, by Flavius Josephus

c .DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM A.D. 70 Part 1 – YouTube

88- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS RELIGION?..it crosses so many different boundaries in human experience, religion is notoriously difficult to define.

a.What is Religion? – WHY STUDY RELIGION

b.What is Religion? – YouTubeList of religions and spiritual traditions – Wikipedia, the free.

c.List of religions and spiritual traditions – Wikipedia, the free

89- PTOLEMY: 100-170AD… Claudius Ptolemy was writer and mathematician … He was also a poet of a single epigram…

a. Ptolemy | Egyptian scientist and mathematician | Britannica.com

b. Physical Science 10.1b – PtolemyYouTube

c.Ptolemy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

90- EVENTS/IDEAS: 200AD …HERO OF ALEXANDER’S BOOK OF MACHINES… Baths of Caracalla in Rome… Watermill complex near Arles…

a. Hero of Alexandria and His Amazing Machines – Today I Found Out

b.Amazing Ancient Discoveries (Heron of Alexandria) – YouTube

c.Hero of AlexandriaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

91- :MARCUS  AURELIUS…121-180AD… IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE LAST OF FIVE GOOD ROMAN EMPERORS …

a. Five Good Emperors | ancient Rome | Britannica.com

b.Five Good EmperorsYouTube

c.The Five Good Emperors of Rome & the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty

92- GALEN OF PERGAMON..: 130-200AD… The development of medicine owes a lot to Galen. He was of Greek origin …

a. Galen – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BERGAMALI GALEN – GALEN OF PERGAMONYouTube

c.Galen of Pergamum | Greek physician | Britannica.com

93- PLOTINUS: c.204-270AD.. .was an Egyptian/Greek/Roman philosopher of the Hellenistic period.

a. The Philosophy of Plotinus: Representative Books from the Enneads

b.Plotinus – Mystic and Philosopher – YouTube

c. .PlotinusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

94- CONSTANTINE THE GREAT…272-337AD… Constantine was the 57th Emperor of Rome…. Constantine was a great military commander winning major victories over the …

a.Constantine I | Roman emperor | Britannica.com

b.Constantine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Constantine the GreatYouTube

95- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THEOLOGY…Webster’s dictionary defines theology as “The science of God or of religion…

a. What is Theology? | Bible.org

b. What is the definition of theology? – GotQuestions.org

c. Theology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

96- EVENTS/IDEAS: 312AD… CONVERSION OF CONSTANTINE … turning point in Christian history occurred when the Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity...

a.Constantine the Great and Christianity – Wikipedia, the free

c.Constantine I | Roman emperor | Britannica.com

97- EVENTS/IDEAS: 312-493AD…THE GROWTH OF THE PAPACY… The preeminence of the bishop of Rome over the entire Catholic Church…

a. History of the papacy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. GROWTH OF PAPAL POWER

c. papacy | Roman Catholicism | Britannica.com

98- EVENTS/IDEAS: 330AD…THE FOUNDING OF CONSTANTINOPLE… Because it lay on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus, the Emperor Constantine understood…

a.Constantinople – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b. THEY MIGHT BE GIANTS “Istanbul (Not Constantinople)” – YouTube

c.The Fall of ConstantinopleYouTube

99- AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO… 354-430AD… an elderly philosopher and theologian whose works influenced the development of Christianity greatly.

a. St. Augustine of Hippo – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online

b.Augustine of Hippo – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Life and Thought of St. Augustine of HippoYouTube

100- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS CALCULUS..Calculus is the study of how things change. It provides a framework for modeling systems in which there is change…

a.What is Calculus? Answered in an easy to understand way with

b.What is calculus? – YouTube

c. CalculusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

101- EVENTS/IDEAS: 449A…THE SAXON CONQUEST OF BRITAIN…The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain was the process, from the mid 5th to early 7th …

a. Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The Anglo Saxon Invasions of Britain – YouTube

c. BBC – Primary History – AngloSaxonsInvasion and settlement

102- EUCLID: mid 400s-mid 300s AD… Euclid, a Greek mathematician known as the “father of geometry.”

a. Euclid | Greek mathematician | Britannica.com

b. What’s the point of Geometry? – EuclidYouTube

c. Euclid, the Father of Geometry – Greek Mathematics – Explorable.com

103-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TRUTH?…If there is such a thing as truth, then we should be able to find it. If truth cannot be known, then it probably doesn’t exist.

a. What is truth? | CARM | Relativism

b.What Is Truth? – YouTube

c.WHAT IS TRUTH

104- MAJOR SUBJECT…SALESPERSONSHIP..NOTHING EVER HAPPENS UNTIL SOMETHING IS SOLD…TO BE SUCCESSFUL YOU HAVE TO SELL YOURSELF…

a. Cricket: Gun Salesperson of the Year – YouTube

b. salespersonship – Wiktionary

c. 8 Rules for Successful Selling – Business Know-How

d. The 5 Great Rules of Selling: The Revised and Enlarged Edition

e.Dale Carnegie Free eBook – How To Win Friends Influence People

105- EVENTS/IDEAS: 476AD…FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE… in Western Europe…

a. 8 Reasons Why Rome Fell – History Lists – History Channel

b. The Roman Empire – Episode 6: The Fall Of The Roman YouTube

c. Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire – Top Documentary

106- EVENTS/IDEAS: 521A…JUSTINIAN CLOSES ATHENIAN PHILOSOPHY SCHOOLS…Although philosophers continued to teach Plato’s philosophy in Athens

a. Emperor Justinian’s Closure of the School of Athens – Bede’s Library

b. Old Roman chant – Tecum Principium – YouTube

c. Justinian I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Justinian the Great – YouTube

107- EVENTS/IDEAS: WHAT IS A THESIS?…A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove.

a.What is a thesis? – Kean University

b Thesis Statements – The Writing Center

c.Writing Tips: Thesis Statements – Center for Writing Studies

108- MUHAMMAD: 570-632AD… Muhammad is the most prominent prophet in Islam. To many he is known to be the creator of the Islamic religion…

a. Islam Guide: Who Is the Prophet Muhammad (Mohammed)?

b.Muhammad The Prophet Of Islam – The Movie – Official YouTube

c.MuhammadWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

109- EVENTS/IDEAS: 632-641AD…THE CONQUEST PERSIA…The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran led to the end of the Sasanian Empire …i

a. Islamic conquest of Persia – YouTube

b. Muslim conquest of Persia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.History of Iran: Islamic Conquest – Iran Chamber Society

110- EVENTS/IDEAS: 709-713AD…THE ARAB CONQUEST O F SPAIN…Islamic Conquest of Hispania.. Coat of arms of Spain …. This situation lasted some 40 years… 

a.The Truth About the Arab Conquest of Spain (711-788) – YouTube

b. The Truth About the Arab Conquest of Spain (711-788) | Daily Stormer

c.Muslim conquest of the Maghreb – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

111- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TYRANNY?… cruel and unfair treatment by people with power over others. : a government in which all power belongs to one person…

a.Tyranny | Definition of Tyranny by Merriam-Webster

b. Principles of Tyranny – Constitution Society

c.Tyranny – Wikipedia

112- CHARLEMAGNE: 742-814AD…  is known as the Holy Rome Emperor…also known as Karl and Charles the Great…

a. Charlemagne | Holy Roman emperor [747?-814] | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – Charlemagne

c.Charlemagne – Part 1: The Founder of Europe – YouTube

113-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS VIRTUE AND VISE?..Assuming that human agents possess settled dispositions or character traits…

a. Virtue and Vice – Encyclopedia of Philosophy | Encyclopedia.com

b.Virtue and Vice / Fear, and Loathing in Las Vegas [Drum YouTube

c. Vice and VirtueWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

114- EVENTS/IDEAS: 850-1000AD… THE RISE OF FEUDALISM…the rise of feudalism in areas formerly dominated by Roman institutions meant the breakdown of…

a. The Rise of Feudalism, 850-1000 AD – WWW Virtual Library

b. Feudalism European History AP World History

c. The Rise of Feudalism – YouTube

115- EVENTS/IDEAS: 862AD…THE BEGINNINGS OF RUSSIA…The early history of Russia, like those of many countries, is one of migrating peoples and ancient kingdoms. 

a. Russian history – Russiapedia

b.History of RussiaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Book Summary – CliffsNotes

116- EVENTS/IDEAS: 919-936AD… CONSOLIDATION OF GERMANY BY HENRY II…Henry II spent the next several years consolidating his … 

a. Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Henry II of England – YouTube

c.Lost Worlds Page 11 – From 500AD to 1000AD

117-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A DISSERTATION?…A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree…

a.What Is a Doctoral (Ph.D.) Dissertation?

b.What Is a Dissertation? | Capella University Blog

c.What Is the Difference Between a Thesis and a Dissertation?

118-  LEIF ERIKSON: c.970-c.1020AD… Leif Erikson an Icelandic explorer,  landed in North America before Christopher Columbus…

a. LEIF EREIKSSION – Exploration – HISTORY.com

b.The Viking Explorer Who Beat Columbus to America – History Channel

c. Leif Eriksson – The First European in North AmericaYouTube

119- EVENTS/IDEAS: 988AD…RUSSIA CONVERTS TO ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY…The Church of Russia, known officially as the Russian Orthodox … (

a. History of the Russian Orthodox Church – Wikipedia, the free

b.Russian Orthodox Christian Priest converted to Islam – YouTube

c.Russian Orthodox Church – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

120- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1002AD…DANISH CONQUEST OF ENGLAND…the ease of the conquest, they decided to settle permanently in England. … 

a.Total war: Age of Charlemagne / Westphalia /#11 / Danish conquest

b. VIKINGS – Part 3 – Invasion of England (Norman YouTube

c. History of Anglo-Saxon EnglandWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

121- EVENTS/IDEAS1066AD…NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND…The Norman conquest of England was the 11th century invasion and occupation of England …

a. Norman conquest of England – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Norman Conquest of EnglandYouTube

c.The Norman Conquest of England – Historic UK

122-HENRY IV: 1076AD… Empire versus Papacy-Henry IV at Canossa…Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII in Canossa 1077, as depicted by Carlo Emanuelle …

a. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Daily Medieval: The Walk to Canossa

c. 2010-11 Medieval Pope-King Battle.m4v – YouTube

123- EVENTS/IDEAS1086AD…DOOMSDAY BOOK INVENTORY OF ENGLAND…The Domesday Book, a detailed inventory of everyone and everything in Norman England

a. BBC – History – British History in depth: The Domesday Book

c.Publication of Domesday BookWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

124- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1088AD…FOUNDING OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF BOLOGNA AND PARIS…In the 11th century, Bologna became an important center of legal studies. 

a. University of Paris – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. university | Britannica.com

c.University of ParisYouTube

125- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS LOVE?…Is Love“. She stares into the mirror, youth fading with the sun. The hollows in her face like wishing wells.

a. WHITE LIES LYRICS – Is Love – A-Z Lyrics

b. Gala is Love

c. Love Is Love // Return To Dust | Deathwish Inc.

126- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A CITIZEN?… a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection.

a. Citizen – definition of citizen by The Free Dictionary

b.What is a Good Citizen ?

c. Family Education Series – Being A Good CitizenYouTube

127-GENGHIS KHAN: 1162-1227AD…The Great Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire…Genghis Khan  or Chingis Khan, was the first great military leader…

a.Genghis Khan – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b.Wait For It…The Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17 – YouTube

c.The Mongols in World History | Asia Topics in World History

128-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS JUSTICE?…the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness: to uphold the justice of a cause.

a. Justice, Western Theories of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b. Three Theories of Justice | Ethical Realism

c.A Theory of Justice Summary – e Notes.com

129- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COURAGE?…Courage is a universally admired attribute. From soldiers to entrepreneurs, writers to explorers, living with courage…

a. The Six Attributes of Courage | Psychology Today

b. Courage: No Guts, No Glory – Frank Sonnenberg Online

c.Courage: Experiencing War: Veterans History Project (Library of

130- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1194AD-1500AD… GOTHIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE… dominate Europe… French Gothic architecture is a style of architecture prevalent…

a. French Gothic architecture – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.French Gothic architecture Wiki

c.The Great Gothic Cathedrals of EuropeYouTube

131- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1215AD ..MAGNA CARTA …limits the power of the King…Following a revolt by the English nobility , King John puts his royal seal on the Magna Carta

a.Magna Carta1215YouTube

b. The Magna Carta 1215 – Constitution Society

c.Magna Carta Exclusive Videos & Features – HISTORY.com

132- THOMAS AQUINAS….1225-1274AD …St. Thomas was a Dominican friar and Catholic priest whose influence on natural theology was immense….

a. Get PDF (146K) – Wiley Online Library

b. Saint Thomas Aquinas – Thomistic Philosophy

c.Thomas Aquinas – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

133- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS WISDOM?…The dictionary defines wisdom as “the ability to discern or judge what is true, right , or lasting.” Knowledge, on the other hand…

a. What Is The Bible Definition Of Wisdom? How Are We Wise In God’s

b.What is WisdomYouTube

c.Plato’s view of wisdom

134- MARCO POLO…1254-1324AD… Marco Polo was an Italian merchant and explorer who greatly influenced European cartography…

a. Marco Polo – Journalist, Explorer – Biography.com

b. Marco Polo | Italian explorer | Britannica.com

c. 11 Things You May Not Know About Marco Polo – History Lists

135- EVENTS/IDEAS…1257-1265AD…THE BARONS’ WAR…and the first English Parliament…

a. The BaronsWar, Simon de Montfort v Henry III – Britain Express

b.Edward I of England – YouTube

c. First Parliament of Great BritainWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

136-DANTE ALIGHIERI…1265-1321AD… “Dante” Italian poet during the late Middle Ages..

a. Dante | Italian poet | Britannica.com

b. Dante – Philosopher, Scholar, Poet – Biography.com

c.Dante Alighieri (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

137- EVENTS/IDEAS…1268AD…THE FIRST WEIGHT-DRIVEN MECHANICAL CLOCK…There are two basic types of mechanical clocks, those powered by weights …

a. History of the Clock – The Anderson Institute

b. Antique Chauncey Jerome Weight Driven Wall ClockYouTube

c. History of the Clock – The Anderson Institute

138- PETRARCH: 1304-1374AD…scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

a. Petrarch – Philosopher, Poet – Biography.com

b. ITALIAN HUMANISM – World Wide Web Virtual Library

c. The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) – YouTube

139- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1304AD-1564AD…ITALIAN RENAISSANCE A RE-BIRTH…The term Renaissance, literally means “rebirth” and is the period in European …

a, The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) – YouTube

b. History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery

c. Examining the (Re)Birth of the Renaissance – For Dummies

140- EVENTS/IDEAS…1329A… HUNDRED YEAR WAR… between England and France…The Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts waged from …

a. Hundred YearsWar – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. What Hundred Years War? | History Today

c. 7 facts about the Hundred YearsWar and the battle of Agincourt

141- GEOFFREY CHAUCER: c.1343-1400AD… Geoffrey Chaucer is know as “the father of English literature..

a.Geoffrey Chaucer: The Father of Modern English? | Great Writers

c.Next post: How many Chaucers does it take to change a language?

142- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1347A…REVOLUTION IN ROME…The messages in the Bayside Prophecies on the coming revolution in Rome, Italy given by Jesus and Our Lady…

a. Rome’s Revolution – Richard Alston – Oxford University Press

b. The Problems of Prosperity — The Roman Revolution Pt 1 – YouTube

c. Ancient Rome – Ancient History – HISTORY.com – History Channel

143- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1347AD…FIRST OUTBREAK OF THE BLACK PLAGUE IN EUROPE…The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague

a. Black Death – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. Black Death – Medieval Life and Times

c.Medieval Life: The Black DeathYouTube

144-JOHANNES GUTENBERG : 1395-1468AD… FIRST PRINTING PRESS… Johannes Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer and publisher in Europe…

a. Johannes Gutenberg Biography (1395-1468)

b. social security can only go broke because of ignorance about

c.Johannes Gutenberg | German printer | Britannica.com

145-JOAN OF ARC: 1412-1431AD… Joan of Arc was a heroine of France for the role she played during “The Hundred Years’ War,” and she was made a Roman Catholic Saint.

a. Saint Joan of Arc | French heroine | Britannica.com

b.St. Joan of Arc – Warrior of God (True Story) – YouTube

c.St Joan: Play Summary – CliffsNotes

146-JAN VAN EYCK : 1425AD…Flemish Oil Painter, Best-Known for Ghent … painters of the Netherlandish Renaissance, Van Eyck mastered the art of oil painting…

a. Oil paint – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Jan van Eyck: Flemish Painter – Visual Arts Encyclopedia

c.Jan van Eyck A Flemish Painter – Northern Renaissance YouTube

147- JOHN CABOT: c.1450-c.1500AD… John Cabot, an Italian navigator and explorer who discovered portions of North America. ..

a.John CabotYouTube

b.John CabotExplorer – Biography.com

c.John Cabot – Exploration – HISTORY.com – History Channel

148- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT ARE OPINIONS?…In general, an opinion is a judgment, viewpoint, or statement about matters commonly considered to be subjective. 

a. Opinion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Distinguishing Between Fact, Opinion, Belief, and Prejudice

c Stereotypes and PrejudicesYouTube

149- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: c.1451-1506AD… Christopher Columbus an Italian explorer and navigator  who discovered “The New World.”

150- LEONARDO da VINCI: 1452-1519AD… Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath…Leonardo’s curiosity and insatiable hunger for knowledge never left him.

a. Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci – Wikipedia, the free

b.Leonardo DaVinciYouTube

c.BBC – HistoryLeonardo da Vinci

151- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1453AD-1521AD…GOLDEN AGE OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE IN …MEXICO…The Aztec Empire, which experienced its golden age between…

a. Aztec history

b. History of the Aztecs – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Aztec Civilization – Ancient History EncyclopediaHarvey was an English physician

152- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1453AD…THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE…The siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily…

a. The Fall of Constantinople | History Today

b. The Sack of Constantinople, 1453 – Eye Witness to History

c. The Fall of Constantinople – World History

153-AMERIGO VESPUCCI: 1457-1512AD… Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer…

a.Amerigo Vespucci Facts & Biography | Famous Explorers

b.Amerigo VespucciExplorerBiography.com

c.Amerigo Vespucci Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

154- NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI…1469-1527AD… Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian philosopher, historian, and known as the founder of political science…

a. Niccolò Machiavelli (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b.POLITICAL THEORY – Nicoli MachiavelliYouTube

c.Niccolo Machiavelli – the Cunning Critic of Political Reason | History

155- NICOLAUS COPERNICUS… 1473-1543AD… Nicolaus Copernicus, a Renaissance astronomer and mathematician…

a.Nicholas Copernicus Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

b.Nicolaus Copernicus – Astronomer, Scientist, Mathematician ..

c. BBC – History – Copernicus

156- JUAN PONCE de LEON…1474-1521AD… Juan Ponce de Leon, led the first Europe expedition to Florida…

a. Juan Ponce de León – Explorer – Biography.com

b. Juan Ponce de Leon | Spanish explorer | Britannica.com

c. Juan Ponce de León – Exploration – HISTORY.com

157- FERDINAND MAGELLAN…1480-1521AD… Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer,  first circumnavigation of the world.

a. Ferdinand MagellanExploration – HISTORY.com

b. 10 Surprising Facts About Magellan’s Circumnavigation of the Globe

c.Magellan Was Not the First Person to Circumnavigate the Globe

158- BABUR.. 1483-1530AD… Babur a Central Asian conqueror, the first Emperor of the Mughal Dynasty of India…

a. Babur – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaBabur | Founder of the Mughal DynastyAsian History – About.com

b. Babur | Founder of the Mughal DynastyAsian History – About.com

c. Muslim Rule of India

159- MARTIN LUTHER…1483-1546AD… Martin Luther, a German friar, priest, and theology professor, a pivotal figure during the Protestant Reformation…

a.Martin Luther Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

c. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther – New Advent

160- EVENTS/IDEAS…1485AD… END OF WAR OF ROSES…This event is seen as marking the end of the War of Roses…

a. Wars of the Roses – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The End of the Wars of the Roses

c. 9 Things You Should Know About the Wars of the Roses – History in

161- VASCO da GAMA: 1487AD…was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa to India; making him the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and Asia.

a. Vasco da Gama – Explorer – Biography.com

b. Vasco da Gama – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.World History 1450-1500 AD – History Central

162- EVENTS/IDEAS…1491AD…THE CONQUEST OF CANADA…The British campaign to conquer Canada began in 1758 starting with the capture of the port of Louisburg…

a. Conquest – The Canadian Encyclopedia

b.Canada A Country by Consent: The Conquest

c. CONQUEST OF CANADA The British campaign to conquer Canada began in 1758 starting with the capture of the port of Louisburg, part of a surrounding colony, which was followed by …

163- EVENTS/IDEAS…1492AD…THE JEWS EXPELLED FROM SPAIN…In the same month in which their Majesties issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out…

a. The Spanish Expulsion (1492) | Jewish Virtual Library

b. Jews to be expelled from Spain – Mar 31, 1492 – HISTORY.com

c. Jews, Expulsion of (Spain; Portugal) – Encyclopedia.com

164- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS…1492AD… Columbus an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer whose first voyage to the New World– The discovery of America…

a. Christopher Columbus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Explorers of North America: EnchantedLearning.com

c.Discovery and Colonization of the New World – The American

165- FRANCOIS RABELAIS…1494-c.1553AD… Francois Rabelais a French writer, physician, monk, Greek scholar, and humanist during the Renaissance…

a.Francois Rabelais | French author | Britannica.com

b.Francois Rabelais Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.François Rabelais Essay – Rabelais, François – eNotes.com

166- EVENTS/IDEA…1494AD…CHARLES VIII INVADES ITALY…The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the … 

a. Charles VIII of France – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Charles VIII Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

c. Charles VIII Facts – Biography – YourDictionary

167- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1497-1499AD… VOYAGES OF VASCO da GAMA…Vasco da Gama found a direct sea route from Europe to Asia, and was the first European to sail to India.

a. Vasco da GamaExploration – HISTORY.com

b.Vasco da Gama – Ages of Exploration

c.Vasco da Gama – Explorer – Biography.com

168- EVENTS/IDEAS…1498AD… THE EXECUTION OF SAVONAROLA…Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola in Florence…

a. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

b. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

c. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

169- EVENTS/IDEA… 1499-1502AD… THE MORISCOS SPANISH MUSLIM ….the Moriscos were descendants of Spain’s Muslim population that converted to Christianity…

a. Morisco | Spanish Muslim | Britannica.com

b. Expulsion of the Moriscos – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Spain’s Forgotten Muslims – The Expulsion of the Moriscos

170- EVENTS/IDEAS…1508AD… LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI …The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League…

a. League of Cambrai | European history | Britannica.com

b.League of Cambrai Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. War of the League of Cambrai – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

171- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1510-1535AD… CONQUESTS OF MEXICO AND PERU…With the Spanish conquests of Mexico and Peru in the early 16 Th century…

a. Conquest of Mexico and Peru

b. History of the Conquest of Mexico & History of the Conquest of Peru

c.Conquest of Mexico and Peru – YouTube

172- MICHELANGELO… 1512AD… Michelangelo is a well-known Italian sculptor, painter, and architect during the time of the Renaissance…

a. MichelangeloPainter, Architect, Poet, Sculptor – Biography.com

b. Michelangelo | Italian artist | Britannica.com

c. Michelangelo: Italian Renaissance Artist – Visual Arts Encyclopedia

173- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1513AD… BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD…The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field was part of a conflict between the Kingdom of England and the …

a. Battle of Flodden Field – Education Scotland

b. Battle of Flodden – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Battle of Flodden Field 1513. – England’s North East

174- FERDINAND MAGELLAN: 1515AD… who is know for the initiation of the Spanish expeditions to the East Indies which led to him being the first to circumnavigate the Earth.

a. Ferdinand Magellan – Exploration – HISTORY.com

b.Ferdinand Magellan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.Ferdinand Magellan Biography – Encyclopedia of World Biography

175- EVENTS/IDEAS…1517-1540AD…THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION…The Protestant Reformation was a  religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval…

a.The Reformation – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Reformation – New Adven

c. Protestant Reformation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

176- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1520AD…FIELD OF CLOTH AND GOLD … Field of Cloth and Gold… In the early 16th century the balance of power in Western Europe was a precarious one…

a. Field of the Cloth of Gold – TudorHistory.org

b.The Field of Cloth of Gold – British Library

c.British School, 16th century – The Field of the Cloth of Gold

177- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1521-1529AD… CHARLES V CONQUERS ITALY…The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy

a. 51. The Emperor Charles V. Wells, H.G. 1922. A Short History of the

b.Charles V | Holy Roman emperor | Britannica.com

c. Italian War of 1494–98 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

178- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1528AD..THE ADMIRAL ANDREA DORIA GUIDED BY NEPTUNE… of Charles V’s imperial fleet, the ruler of Genoa, and a distinguished…

a. Andrea Doria | Genoese statesman | Britannica.com

b.Andrea Doria – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Andrea Doria and Giannettino Doria; The Admiral Andrea Doria

179- MICHEL de MONTAIGNE…1533-1592AD… Michel de Montaigne, one of the more noteworthy philosophers of the French Renaissance…

a.Montaigne, Michel de | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b.Renaissance Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

c. Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (1533-92) – 1902 Encyclopedia

180- EVENTS/IDEAS…1534AD… SUPPRESSION OF THE GREATER MONASTERIES…The dissolution or suppression of the monasteries in England was carried …. 

a. Dissolution of the Monasteries – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII – New Advent

c.Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII – New Advent

181- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1540AD… THE CATHOLIC COUNTER-REFORMATION…The CounterReformation was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council…

a. CounterReformation – PBS CounterReformation | religious history | Britannica.com

b. CounterReformation | religious history | Britannica.com

c.Counter Reformation Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

182-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ARISTOCRACY?…government by a relatively small privileged class or by a minority consisting of those felt to be best qualified to rule.

a. Aristocracy | Define Aristocracy at Dictionary.com

b. The History Place – Great Speeches Collection: Susan B. Anthony

c. The Aristocracy – Born to Rule: 1875-1914 1st part – YouTube

183- ANDREAS VESALIUS… 1543AD… Vesalius’s On the structure of the Human Body…Known for, De humani corporis fabrica or “the structure of the human body” … 

a. Andreas Vesalius – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

b. Comparative Anatomy: Andreas Vesalius – Understanding Evolution

c. Andreas Vesalius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

184- WILLIAM GILBERT…1544AD-1603AD… Gilbert was an English physician, physicist, and natural philosopher…William Gilbert’s On the Magnet…

a.William Gilbert Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

b.William Gilbert Founder Of Terrestrial Magnetism – The General

c. Cambridge Scientific Minds

185- MIGUEL de CERVANTES…c.1547-1616AD… “Cervantes” was novelist, poet, and playwright of Spanish descent… wrote Don Quixote…

a. Miguel de Cervantes – Military Leader, Writer – Biography.com

b. Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist, Poet, and Playwright (Signature

c. Miguel de Cervantes | Spanish writer | Britannica.com

186- SIR WALTER RALEIGH…1552-1618AD… Sir Walter Raleigh was an English gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, explorer, made tobacco popular throughout England…

a.Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618) – Encyclopedia Virginia

b. The Life of Sir Walter Ralegh (1552-1618) [Raleigh Biography]

c. Walter RALEIGH (Sir) – Elizabethan Hero, Explorer and Pirate

187-GERARDUS MERCATOR…1512-1594AD… Mercator was a cartographer of Flemish descent, who developed mathematics-based maps of Europe…

a. 12 Maps That Changed the World – The Atlantic

b.Gerardus Mercator Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594 – Getty Images

188- GIORDANO BRUNO…1548-1600AD… Bruno was an Italian Friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer..

a.Giordano Bruno | Italian philosopher | Britannica.com

b. Giordano Bruno – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.1600AD Roman Inquisition – Anthropology: Nelson, Gilbert, Wong

189-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS MIND?…is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory…

a. What Is the Mind? | Psychology Today

b. What’s The Difference Between The Mind And The Brain? – The best

c. What is the Mind? – Kadampa Buddhism

190- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS AN OLIGARCHY?…Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.

a. Oligarchy | Define Oligarchy at Dictionary.com

b. ligarchy | government | Britannica.com

c. America is an oligarchy, not a democracy or republic, university study

191-EVENT..JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT 1607…The founding of Jamestown, America’s first permanent English colony, in Virginia…

a. History of Jamestown, Virginia (1607–99) – Wikipedia, the free

b. History of Jamestown – Jamestown Settlement

c. Jamestown Colony – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

192- Fancis Bacon…1561-1626AD… Francis Bacon, an English philosopher… was an  statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

a.  Francis Bacon – Scientist, Lawyer – Biography.com

b. BBC – History – Francis Bacon

C. Francis Bacon – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

193- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE… 1564-1616AD… “Shakespeare,” a well-known English poet, playwright, and actor…,

a.Shakespeare’s Elizibethan England 1564 to 1616 AD

b. The Life of William Shakespeare (1564–1616) | Shakespeare in

c. A Man of Culture: English Plays V – William Shakespeare – Hamlet

194- GALILEO GALILEI… 1564-1642AD… Galileo was an Italian astronomer, physicist, philosopher, and mathematician…

a. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) – ScienceWorld – Wolfram

b. What were Galileo’s scientific and biblical conflicts with the Church?

c. Chapter 3 – Department of Physics and Astronomy

195-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS WAR AND PEACE?…War and Peace broadly focuses on Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812…

a. War and Peace – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy — Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs

c.Ten Things You Need to Know About War And Peace – BBC

196- EVENTS/IDEAS:…1568-1648AD…RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC…was an American author, best known for his two popular histories The Rise of the Dutch Republic and The  …

a . Rise of the Dutch Republic I.(of 3) 1555-66, by John Lothrop Motley,

b. The Rise of the Dutch Republic | work by Motley | Britannica.com

c. The Rise of the Dutch Republic & Their Golden Age: History

197-JOHANNES KEPLER…1571-1630AD… KEPLER WAS A GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN, ASTRONOMER, AND ASTROLOGIST…

a. A History of Astronomy. Ptolemy to Copernicus to Johannes Kepler.

b. Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630) – ScienceWorld – Wolfram

c. Johannes Kepler – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

198- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1572AD…THE MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW…The St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Bartholemy in French) in 1572…

a. Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – Aug 24, 1572 – HISTORY.com

b. Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day | French history | Britannica.com

c.CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

199- WILLIAM HARVEY…1572AD..Read a biography about Willam Harvey, the 17th century physician who …

a. William Harvey | English physician | Britannica.com

b. William Harvey – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c. BBC – History – William Harvey

200-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS DESIRE?… desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity…

a. What Is The Root Cause Of Suffering | Buddhapadipa Temple

b. Sexual desire and intimate relationships – Wikipedia, the free

c. he Botany of Desire: Based on the book by Michael Pollan – PBS

201- BLAISE PASCAL..1623-1662AD… Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and Christian philosopher…

a. Blaise Pascal Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. English: Quotes of Zion

c.Blaise Pascal | French philosopher and scientist | Britannica.com

202- CHRISTIAN HUYGENS…1629-1695AD… Huygens, a Dutch mathematician of Huygens led a solo life and never married nor had children.

a. Christiaan Huygens – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Christiaan Huygens Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.Christiaan Huygens – Biography, Facts and Pictures

203- BARUCH SPINOZA… 1632-1677AD… Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese origin. Spinoza an 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism…

a. Benedict de Spinoza | Dutch-Jewish philosopher | Britannica.com

b. Baruch Spinoza (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c. Why Spinoza Was Excommunicated | Humanities

204- JOHN LOCKE… 1632-1704AD… Locke, an English philosopher and physician… Locke is known  as “ the Father of Liberalism.”…

a. John Locke | English philosopher | Britannica.com

b. John LockePhilosopher – Biography.com

c. John Locke – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

205- ROBERT HOOKE: 1635-1703AD… Hooke was an English natural philosopher. Hooke’s Micrographia…is famous for pioneering microscopy and cell science. … 

a. Micrographia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.History – British History in depth: Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher

c. Robert Hooke | ASU – Ask A Biologist

206- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1637AD… Rene Descartes introduces algebraic geometry… “Father of Modern Philosophy”, but he was also … 

a. The Geometry of Rene Descartes | Mathematical Association of

b. Descartes‘ Mathematics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c.Descartes and the birth of analytic geometry

207- SIR ISAAC NEWTON: 1642-1727AD… Newton, an English physicist and mathematician–  most influential scientists of “all time;”…

a. Isaac Newton | Biography, Facts, Discoveries, Laws, & Inventions

b. Isaac Newton’s Life | Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences

c. Sir Isaac Newton Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

208- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1642-1646AD… THE WAR BETWEEN CHARLES I AND THE PARLIAMENT…The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and . 

a. Charles I | king of Great Britain and Ireland | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – King Charles I

c. History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I

209- WILLIAM PENN: 1644-1718AD… Penn was an English entrepreneur of real estate, philosopher, and an early quake; an early advocate of Democracy and religious freedom…

a. Brief History of William Penn – USHistory.org

b.William Penn – Journalist, Minister, Missionary, Lawyer – Biography

c. William Penn Was Born – America’s Library

210- GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ: 1646-1716AD… Leibniz, a prominent German polymath and philosopher. Leibniz’s first calculus publication…

a. Leibniz summary – MacTutor History of Mathematics

b.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – The Metaphysics Research Lab

c. The Kalam Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God

211- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1648AD… TREATY OF WESTPHALIA ENDS THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR…These treaties ended the Thirty YearsWar the Holy Roman … 

a. Thirty Years War ends – Oct 24, 1648 – HISTORY.com

b.Peace of Westphalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. The Thirty YearsWar & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary

212 MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?…Geography is the study of Earth’s landscapes, peoples, places and environments…

a.What is geography? – Royal Geographical Society

b.What is Geography? – National Geographic Education

c.What is Geography? – Definition, Facts & Types – Video & Lesson

213- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1648AD-1789AD… AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT…The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.

a. Europe history 1789 AD – Time Maps

b. Scandinavia 1789AD – TimeMaps

c.France 1789AD – TimeMaps

214- JACOB BERNOULLI: 1654-1705AD… Bernoulli was a prominent English mathematician who introduced the modern probability theory…

a.Jacob Bernoulli – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bernoulli Jacob biography – MacTutor History of Mathematics

c. Jakob Bernoulli | Swiss mathematician | Britannica.com

215- JOHN EVELYN: 1660AD… John Evelyn, who helped to found the Royal Society at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London

a.History | Royal Society

b. Royal Society | British science society | Britannica.com

c. The Royal Society of London – The Euler Archive

216- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1666AD… French Royal Academy of Science founded…Colbert Presenting the Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences to Louis XIV … 

a. French Academy of Sciences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Academy of Sciences | French organization | Britannica.com

c. French Royal Academy of Sciences, 1671 – Science Photo Library

217- JONATHAN SWIFT: 1667-1745AD… Swift, and Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet, and cleric…

a. Jonathan Swift – Writer – Biography.com

b. Jonathan Swift [1667-1745]: free web books, online

c. The Life of Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) – Luminarium

218- ANTON LEEUWENHOEK’S: 1673AD… Anton Leeuwenhoek’s first published microscope observations…

a.ntonie van LeeuwenhoekWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek | Dutch scientist | Britannica.com

c.History of Microbiology: Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, and Cohn

219- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1679AD…THE EXCLUSION BILL AND HABEAS CORPUS ACT…

a. Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – Constitution Society

c. British History Timeline, Britain through the ages – Being British

220- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1683AD …THE SIEGE OF VIENNA…

a. Battle of Vienna – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. 1683: The Siege of Vienna | History Today

c. 322nd Anniversary of “The Battle of Vienna” (Polish king saves

221- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1685AD…REVOCATION OF THE EDICT OF NANTES…

a. The period of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1661-1700

b. The Edict of Fontainebleau or the Revocation (1685) | Musée virtuel

c.Louis XIV | king of France | Britannica.com

222- JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH: 1685-1750AD… Bach is a well-known German composer and musician during the Baroque period….

a. Johann Sebastian Bach – Composer – Biography.com

b. Johann Sebastian Bach Childhood – Famous People

c. Johann Sebastian Bach Essay Examples | Kibin

223-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS MINERALOGY?…

a.Mineral Chemistry – Tulane University

b.20. mineralogy and chemical composition of clay minerals

c.igneous rock | geology | Britannica.com

224- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1688AD…THE TRIAL OF THE SEVEN BISHOPS…

a.Seven BishopsTrial – Legal Dictionary – The Free Dictionary

b. James II and the Trial of the Seven Bishops | W. Gibson | Palgrave

c. Seven Bishops – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

225- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1688AD…THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION… Revolution of 1688, or Bloodless Revolution , in English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the …

a. Glorious Revolution | English history | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – British History in depth: The Glorious Revolution

c.The 5th of November 1688 AD, Glorious Revolution begins

226- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?… is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances …

a.What Is Chemistry? – Live ience

b.What Is Chemistry? – Definition – About.com

c.General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Introduction: What is chemistry?

227- MONTESQUIEU: 1689-1755AD… “Charles-Louis de Secondt” was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher… Famous for his theory of the separations of powers…

a. charles de secondat, baron de montesquieu (1689 – Liberal Vision

b. Charles Louis de Secondat baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu

c. Articles: Cicero and Obama – American Thinker

228- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1690AD… THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE…

a. BBC – History – The Battle of the Boyne

b.Battle of the Boyne: King William III’s Victory in Ireland | History Net

c. Boyne Valley Brochure – Discover Ireland

229- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1692AD… THE MASSACRE OF GLENCOE…

a. The 13th of February 1692 AD, Massacre of Glencoe

b. Massacre of Glencoe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Glencoe Massacre’s 320-year-old curse on my name | UK news

230- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS BOTANY?

a.What is Botany? – Botanical Society of America

b.What can I do with a major in Botany? – University of Oklahoma

c.Botany: The Original Natural Science | EnvironmentalScience.

231-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ZOOLOGY?…

a.Zoological Subspecies of Man – America First Books

b.gastrozooid | zoology | Britannica.com

c.Science Jobs & Careers – Different Types of Scientists – Facts

232- BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: 1706-1790AD… Franklin is known as one of the founding fathers of the United States of America…

a.Benjamin Franklin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Benjamin Franklin His Autobiography 1706-1757

c.Benjamin Franklin – Diplomat, Scientist, Inventor, Writer – Biography

233- HENRY FIELDING: 1707-1754AD… Fielding was an English novelist and dramatist who is known for his satirical prowess and earthy humor. ..

a. Henry Fielding – Writer – Biography.com

b. Henry Fielding Biography – CliffsNotes

c.Henry Fielding Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

234- SPECIAL TOPICS…WHAT IS CHIROPRACTIC?…Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the …

a. ChiropracticWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Chiropractic treatment techniques – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. First Time Chiropractor Neck & Back Adjustment YouTube

235- SAMUEL JOHNSON: 1709-1784AD… Johnson an English writer; a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor, and lexicographer…

a. Samuel Johnson – Author, Editor, Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

b. BBC – History – Samuel Johnson

c.Samuel Johnson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

236- DAVID HUME: 1711-1776AD… Hume a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist– highly radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism…

a. David Hume – died 1776AD – Philosophy – Winning-Teams.com

b. David Hume > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy

c. THE GREAT BOOKS OF THE WESTERN WORLD | Augustine

237- JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU: 1712-1778AD… Rousseau a French philosopher, writer, and composer…. The French Enlightenment was influenced by Rousseau’s political philosophy…

a. JeanJacques Rousseau – died 1778 – Philosopher.

b. Spark-notes: JeanJacques Rousseau (1712–1778)

c. POLITICAL THEORY – JeanJacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778

238- LAURENCE STERNE: 1713-1768AD… Sterne, an Anglo-Irish novelist and Anglican clergyman…

a. Laurence Sterne – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Brief biography of Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)

c.Laurence Sterne Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

239- SAMUEL ADAMS: 1722-1803AD… Adams is most known as one of the Founding Fathers of The United States…

a. Samuel Adams, Jr. (1722 – 1803) – Genealogy – Geni

b.Samuel Adams – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Samuel Adams – USHistory.org

240- ADAM SMITH: c.1723-1790AD..Samuel Adams – US History.org. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations…

a. dam Smith – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Adam Smith (1723-1790)

c.Adam Smith – Philosopher, Political Scientist, Journalist, Educator

241-  IMMANUEL KANT: 1724-1804AD… Kant, a German philosopher, is highly considered as the most central influential figure of modern philosophy.

a. Immanuel Kant – Philosopher – Biography.com

b. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

c.What is moral autonomy? – Quora

242- CATHERINE THE GREAT: 1729-1796AD… Catherine II was an empress of
Russia… longest-ruling female leader of Russia….

a. Catherine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Civilization V Leader | Catherine of Russia – YouTube

c.Catherine The Great Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

243- ROBERT TREAT PAINE: 1731-1814AD …Paine was an American lawyer and politician out of Massachusetts.

a. Robert Treat Paine – USHistory.org

b. PAINE, Robert Treat – Biographical Information

c.Robert Treat Paine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

244-GEORGE WASHINGTON: 1732-1799AD… Washington was the first president of The United States of America, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army……

a. 1732 Washington Archives – NewspaperArchive.com

b.George Washington, 1732–1799 | Papers of George Washington

c.Washington, George (1732–1799) – Encyclopedia Virginia

d. George Washington – U.S. President, General – Biography.com

245- ROBERT MORRIS: 1734-1806AD… Morris is one of the Founding Fathers of The United States as well as one of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence…

a.A Biography of Robert Morris 1734-1806 < Biographies < American

b.Robert Morris (1734-1806), University of Pennsylvania University

c.Robert Morris – USHistory.org

246- JOHN ADAMS: 1735-1826AD… Adams, an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat– who was the second U.S. president as well as the first U.S. vice president…

a. John Adams – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Adams Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. English: Quotes of Zion

247-SPECIAL TOPICS…WHAT IS MUSIC?..

a. What Is Music? | Thinking Sounds – by Marcel Cobussen

b. Music – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. What is music? how it affects moods, emotions, creating atmosphere

248- JOHN HANCOCK: 1737-1793AD…John Hancock signed the Declaration of Independence and promoted reveloution…

a. John Hancock Biography – Encyclopedia of World Biography

b. John Hancock – U.S. Governor, U.S. Representative – Biography.com

c.John Hancock | United States statesman | Britannica.com

249- EDWARD GIBBON: 1737-1794AD…Edward Gibbon was an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall …

a. Edward Gibbon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Edward Gibbon – Online Library of Liberty

c. Edward GIBBON (1737 – 1794) – LibriVox

250- CHARLES CARROLL: 1737-1832AD…He was the only catholic and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95…

a. Charles Carroll of Carrollton – The Signer | Charles Carroll House

b. Charles Carroll of Carrollton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Catholic Founding Fathers – The Carroll Family

251- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1738AD… THE RISE OF METHODISM AND THE NEW PHILANTHROPY…

a.Methodism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Methodist Origins, Methodist History, Methodist Beliefs – Patheos

c.The History of Methodism | Methodist Heritage

252- JAMES BOSWELL: 1740-1795AD…was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.

a. James Boswell (1740-1795) | James Boswell .info

b. James Boswell (1740-1795) – The Boswell Trust

c.James Boswell – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

253- JOHN PENN: 1741-1788AD…was born in Caroline County, Virginia, to a family of means...

a.John Penn (Continental Congress) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Penn – USHistory.org

c.John Penn | The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the

254- GEORGE WALTON: 1741-1804AD…one of Georgia’s leading lawyers. In 1775, he became secretary of the Georgia Provincial Congress… 

a. George Walton (c.1741 – c.1804) – Genealogy – Geni

b.George Walton | The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of

c. George Walton (1749 – 1804) – Find A Grave Memorial

255- Antoine Lavoisier: 1743-1794AD… Lavoisier discovers oxygen, initiates the chemical revolution…

a. Antoine Lavoisier – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier | Chemical Heritage Foundation

c. Antoine Lavoisier – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

256- THOMAS JEFFERSON: 1743-1826AD…Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence… In 1801, he became the United Statesthird President...

a.Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography | Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello

bTimeline of Jefferson’s Life | Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello

c. .Thomas Jefferson | whitehouse.gov.

d.Thomas JeffersonU.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

e. List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union

257-BENJAMIN RUSH: 1745-1813AD…the “father of American psychiatry,” was the first to believe that mental illness is a disease of the mind…

a.Pennsylvania Hospital History: Stories – Dr. Benjamin Rush

b.Benjamin Rush is born – Dec 24, 1745 – HISTORY.com

c.Benjamin Rush – USHistory.org

258- JOHANN WOLFGANG von GOETHE: 1749-1832AD…German poet, playwright, novelist, and natural philosopher is best known for his two-part poetic drama Faust, …

a.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – The Literature Network

c.J.W. von Goethe | The German Way & More

259- THOMAS WRIGHT: 1750AD… Thomas Wright’s Newtonian cosmology…was one of the first to suggest how the universe might be constructed. … 

a.The Cosmology of Thomas Wright of Durham

b.Cosmological Theories Through History – The Physics of the Universe

c.an original theory or new hypothesis of the universe | Tumblr

260- JAMES MADISON: 1751-1836AD…was an American statesman, political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United …

a.James Madison (1751-1836) < Biographies < American History

b.About this Collection – The James Madison Papers, 1723-1859

c.The Political Education of James Madison | History Today

e. The Original Bill of Rights Had 12 Amendments, Not 10

261- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1755AD…BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT…The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock’s campaign or, more commonly, Braddock’s Defeat

a.Braddock Expedition – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Braddock’s defeat Battle of Monongahela river – British Battles

c. The Organization of Braddock’s Army

262- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1755AD… THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF LISBON…

a. 1755 Lisbon earthquake – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake

c. Lisbon earthquake of 1755 | Portugal | Britannica.com

263- MOZART: 1756-1791AD…Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a musician capable of playing multiple instruments  …

a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Wolfgang Mozart – Pianist, Composer – Biography.com

c. Renown Ego’s: a timeline of historical ego’s – The Order of Time

264- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1756-1763AD… THE SEVEN YEAR’S WAR…The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France

a. The Seven Year War Website ( French and Indian War )

b. The Seven Years War: Crash Course World History #26 – YouTube

c. Seven Years War – New World Encyclopedia

265- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1776…WATT-BOULTON STEAM ENGINES… became commercially available…

a.Watt steam engine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Boulton and Watt Engine – Museum Of Applied Arts And Sciences

c.Boulton and Watt steam engine , 1785 – Powerhouse Museum

266- JAMES MONROE…: 1758-1831AD…was the fifth President of the United States..

a. James Monroe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James Monroe – Miller Center

c. James Monroe | whitehouse.gov

267- JOHN DOLLOND: 1758AD John Dollond patents color-corrected microscope lens…

a. John Dollond – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Dollond – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

c. John Dollond – Florida State University

268- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1763-1766AD… PROSECUTION OF JOHN WILKES… and passing of the Stamp Act…

a.George Grenville – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. George Grenville | prime minister of Great Britain | Britannica.com

c. A Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act : The Colonial Williamsburg

d. Stamp Act – American Revolution – HISTORY.com

269- ANDREW JACKSON: 1767-1845AD…was the seventh President of the United States

a. Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 A brief biography

b.Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 A brief biography < Biographies

c. Andrew Jackson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

270-  JOHN QUINCY ADAMS…1776-1848…6th President of the United States… 

a.Biography of John Quincy Adams

b.John Quincy Adams, 6th President of the United States (1767 – 1848

c. John Quincy Adams | whitehouse.gov

271- JAMES HARGREAVES: 1767AD… James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny…

a. James Hargreaves – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James Hargreaves | English inventor | Britannica.com

c. James Hargreaves | Biography, Inventions and Facts

272- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1775-1783…AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR..

a.American Revolutionary War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. American Revolution History – History Channel

c. US History Timeline: War of Independence

273- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1768AD… THE INVENTION OF THE STEAM ENGINE…

a. The Invention of the Steam Engine

b. Industrial History: The History of the Steam Engine – ThomasNet

c.History of the steam engine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

274- JEAN BAPTISTE: 1768-1830AD… Joseph Fourier…School of Mathematics…

a. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830) – School of Mathematics

b. Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier – Encyclopedia.com

c. Fourier , Jean Baptiste Joseph – Mathematical & Statistical Sciences

275- NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: 1769-1821AD…also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th …

a. Napoleon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Napoleon Bonaparte – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

c. Civilization V Leader | Napoleon of France – YouTube

276- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1769AD… JAMES WATT PATENTS THE STEAM ENGINE…

a. James Watt | Scottish inventor | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – James Watt

c. James Watt – Building the Steam Engine – Inventors – About.com

277-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS EDUCATION?…

a. What is education? definition and meaning – BusinessDictionary.com

b. Education – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. What Is Education?, Jackson – University of Chicago Press

278- BEETHOVEN: 1770-1827AD…He was an innovator, widening the scope of sonata, …

a. Ludwig van Beethoven – Pianist, Composer – Biography.com

b. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) – British Library

c. Ludwig van Beethoven Biography – Profile, Childhood, Life, Timeline

279- GEORGE WILHELM: 1770-1831AD Friedrich Hegel…one of the greatest systematic thinkers in the history of Western philosophy. In addition to epitomizing …

a. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel – Philosopher – Biography.com

c. Hegel – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

280- WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: 1770-1850AD…Wordsworth’s magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semi autobiographical poem…

a. William Wordsworth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

c.William Wordsworth Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

281- RICHARD ARKWRIGHT: 1771AD… Richard Arkwright’s water-powered spinning “frame”…

a. Richard Arkwright – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Richard Arkwright | HISTORY

c. Arkwright’s Water Frame spinning machine – BBC

282- SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE: 1772-1834AD…the English Romantic poet and opium addict who wrote ‘The Rime of the Ancient … 

a. Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Philosopher, Poet, Literary Critic

c. Samuel Taylor Coleridge : The Poetry Foundation

283- WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON: 1773-1891ADS…was the ninth President of the United States. He died shortly after taking the office in 1841, having the shortest…

a.William Henry Harrison – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b.William Henry Harrison: Accomplishments, Campaign & Presidency

c. William Henry Harrison – Top 10 Forgettable Presidents – TIME

284- EVENTS/IDEAS…DESTRUCTION OF TEA IN BOSTON HARBOR…

a.Boston Tea Party – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Destruction of British East India Company Tea | Boston Tea Party

c. Sons of Liberty dump British tea – Dec 16, 1773 – HISTORY.com

285- MERIWETHER LEWIS: 1774-1809AD…The official leader of the epic Lewis and Clark Expedition…

a. Meriwether Lewis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Meriwether Lewis, Captain (1774 – 1809) – Genealogy – Geni

c. PBS – THE WEST – Meriwether Lewis

286- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1775AD-1789AD… AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND CONSTITUTION…

a. The U.S. Constitution – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. The American Revolution and Constitution by Stephanie Harvey

c. Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution – Digital History

e. The Original Bill of Rights Had 12 Amendments, Not 10

287- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1776AD… U.S. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE…

a.Declaration of Independence

b.Declaration of Independence – Office of the Historian

c.Declaration of Independence – Text Transcript

e. The Original Bill of Rights Had 12 Amendments, Not 10

288- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1777AD Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga…

a.Surrender of General Burgoyne | Architect of the Capitol | United

b. The Defeat and Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga | Teaching

c. Battles of Saratoga – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

289- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1781AD… THE SURRENDER OF CORNWALLIS AT YORKTOWN…

a.Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown – Oct 19, 1781 – HISTORY.com

b.Siege of Yorktown – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

290- ZACHARY TAYLOR: 1784-1850AD…a general and national hero in the United States Army 

a.Zachary Taylor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Zachary Scott Taylor, 12th President of the United States (1784

c. Zachary Taylor is born – Nov 24, 1784 – HISTORY.com

291- CALVIN COOLIDGE: 1784-1933AD…President Harding died unexpectedly while in office, so the vice president, Calvin Coolidge, stepped up. 

a. Calvin Coolidge: Impact and Legacy—Miller Center

b. Calvin Coolidge | whitehouse.gov

c. Calvin Coolidge – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

292- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1787-1792AD… THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CRIMEA…

a.Russo-Crimean Wars – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Russo-Crimean Wars – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. History of Crimea – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

293- ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER: 1788-1860AD…one of the greatest philosophers of the 19th century

a.Arthur Schopenhauer | German philosopher | Britannica.com

b.Arthur Schopenhauer – died 1860AD – Philosophy

c. Arthur Schopenhauer – The Proceedings of the Friesian School

294- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1789AD-1815AD… FRENCH REVOLUTION…

a.French Revolution: 1789 AD1815 AD – NYSED Global History and

b.French Revolution – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.French Revolution – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

295- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1789AD The taking of the Bastille…

a. Storming of the Bastille – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. French revolutionaries storm Bastille – Jul 14, 1789 – HISTORY.com

c. French Revolution – Storming the Bastille – Awesome Stories

296- MICHAEL FARADAY: 1791-1867AD…was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and …

a. Michael Faraday – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Michael Faraday – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c.Michael Faraday Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

297-SPECIA TOPIC…WHAT IS CAPITALISM? …ADAM SMITH, FATHER OF CAPITALISM…Means of production and distribution mostly in the hands… b.What is capitalism? – The Capitalism Site

c.What Is Capitalism? – Back to Basics – Finance & Development, June

298- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SOCIALISM?.. KARL MARX, FATHER OF SOCIALISM…MEANS OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION MOSTLY  IN THE …

a.What is Socialism? | World Socialist Movement

b.What Is Socialism? – YouTube

c.Socialism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

299-SPECIAL TOPICS…WHAT IS MIXTURISM? …JAMES CARROLL, FATHER OF MIXTURISM…Means of production and distribution mostly in the hands of private and joint enterprise… and infrastructure such as roads , bridges, schools, heath insurance, Social Security,etc. in the hands of public enterprise…

a.The Philosophy of Mixturism – Internet Free Press

b.August 14, 2015 – Internet Free Press

c. Social security can only go broke because of ignorance about ..

d. .Mixturism

300- ERASMUS DARWIN: 1794AD…was an English physician… One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment, he was also a natural …

a. Erasmus Darwin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Erasmus Darwin – University of California Museum of Paleontology

c. Erasmus Darwin | British physician | Britannica.com

301- JAMES K. POLK: 1795-1849AD…was the 11th President of the United States (1845–49). Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North …

a. James K. Polk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.North Carolina History Project : James K. Polk (1795-1849)

c.The U.S.-Mexican War . Prelude to War . James K. Polk (1845-1849

d. List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union – Wikipedia, the

302- EVENTS/IDEAS: WAR OF 1812…American fears of the Native Americans ended, as did British plans to create a …. The War of 1812 was highly significant in Britain’s…

a. War of 1812 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. An American Perspective | War of 1812 | PBS

c. War of 1812 – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

303-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COLONIALISM?…

a. Colonialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. colonialism, Western | politics | Britannica.com

c.Colonialism and Imperialism intro – YouTube

304- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?…

a. Imperialism | Define Imperialism at Dictionary.com

b. Imperialism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. imperialism | political science | Britannica.com

305- SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS NATIONALISM?…

a. The Nationalism Project: What is Nationalism?

b. Nationalism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. nationalism | politics | Britannica.com

306- SPECIAL TOPIC …WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?

a. What is Democracy? Definition, Types & History – LiveScience

b. What is Democracy? – YouTube

c. parliamentary democracy | government | Britannica.com

307- LAPLACE: 1799AD… Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics…

a. A treatise of celestial mechanics : Laplace, Pierre Simon, marquis de

b. Mathematical Treasures – Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics

c. Celestial Mechanics | work by Laplace | Britannica.com

308- VOLTA: 1800AD… Volta invents the electric battery… The invention of photography..

a. Volta describes the electric battery – American Physical Society

b. Alessandro Volta – Creator of the first Battery

c. History of Electricity

309- ROBERT FULTON…1801-1807AD… Robert Fulton invention of the Steamboat…

a. Robert Fulton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Robert Fulton: Inventor of the Steamboat – Famous American Inventors

c. Robert Fulton | American inventor | Britannica.com

310- RALPH WALDO EMERSON: 1803-1882AD…was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid- 19th …

a. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Philosopher, Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

c.Ralph Waldo Emerson – American Transcendentalism Web

311- NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE: 1804-1864AD…American novelist, Dark Romantic, and short story writer …

a. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Author – Biography.com

b. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Literature Network

c. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

312- FRANKLIN PIERCE: 1804-1869AD…Franklin Pierce was 14th President of the United States...

a. Franklin Pierce Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. Franklin Pierce (1804-1869)/biography – Familypedia – Wikia

c. Franklin Pierce – Miller Center

313- RICHARD TREVITHICK.. .the first locomotive… constructed the world’s first steam railway locomotive (1803). In 1805 …

a. Richard Trevithick – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Richard Trevithick | English engineer | Britannica.com

c. Richard TrevithickThe American Society of Mechanical Engineers

314- JEAN  BAPTISTE CHARBONNEAU: 1805-1866AD… Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was an American explorer and military scout during the Mexican-American war…

a. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau – PBS

b. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau | San Diego History Center

c. .Jean Baptiste Charbonneau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

315- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS DICTATORSHIP?…

a. Dictatorship – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. dictatorship – Dictionary Definition : Vocabulary.com

c. . dictatorship | political science | Britannica.com

316- JOHN STUART MILL: 1806-1873AD…was a British philosopher and economist who is most famous for being a co-founder of Utilitarianism.

a. Spark Notes: John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)

b. Good and Evil – Renaissance

c John Stuart Mill – Utilitarian Philosophy

317- ROBERT E. LEE: 1807-1870AD…Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War …

a. Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) – The Latin Library

b. Lee, Robert E. (ca. 1806–1870) – Encyclopedia Virginia

c. Robert E. Lee Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

318- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: 1807-1882AD…was an American poet and educator whose works include “Paul Revere’s Ride”, The Song …

a.Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 – The Online Books Page

b. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: A Maine Historical Society Web Site

c. About Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

319- JOHN DALTON… John Dalton introduces modern atomic theory…

a. John Dalton – Chemist, Scientist, Meteorologist – Biography.com

b. John Dalton and Atomic Theory – Boundless

c. Dalton’s atomic theory – Antoine

320- Andrew Johnson: 1808-1875AD…was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869…

a. Andrew Johnson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Andrew Johnson – U.S. President – Biography.com

c. Mr. Lincoln’s White House – Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)

321- EDGAR ALLEN POE: 1809-1849AD… was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry  …

a.Edgar Allan Poe, 1809-1849 – Documenting the American South

b. A short biography of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) – Poestories.com

c Edgar Allan Poe Was Born – America’s Library.

322- ABRAHAM LINCOLN: 1809-1865AD… the 16th U.S. president, on … Civil Rights Activist, U.S. Representative, U.S. President, Lawyer (1809–1865)…

a. Abraham Lincoln – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Abraham Lincoln Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c. Lincoln on Pinterest | Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln and

323- CHARLES DARWIN: 1809-1882AD…  introduce the theory of evolution to the scientific community…. Darwin’s On the Origin of Species…

a. Charles Darwin – Biologist, Scientist – Biography.com

b.Charles Darwin History – Theory of Evolution

c.Charles Darwin on Pinterest | Karl Marx, Isaac Newton and

324- LORD ALFRED TENNYSON: 1809-1892AD…was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria’s …

a. Alfred, Lord Tennyson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Alfred Lord Tennyson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c. Lord Alfred Tennyson | Academy of American Poets

325- JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK 1809AD …Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s Zoological Philosophy…

a. JeanBaptiste Lamarck – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Zoological Philosophy by JeanBaptiste Lamarck — Reviews

c.Jean Baptiste Lamarck – Encyclopedia.com

326- Theodor Rousseau: 1812-1867AD… was a French painter of the Barbizon school.

a.Théodore Rousseau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The Forest in Winter at Sunset – Metropolitan Museum of Art

c. Théodore Rousseau on artnet

327- CHARLES DICKENS: 1812-1870AD…was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world’s …

a. Charles Dickens – Author – Biography.com

b.Charles Dickens – The Literature Network

c. Full text of “The Dickens Student And Collector A List Of Writings

328- ROBERT BROWNING: 1812-1889AD…was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the …

a.Robert Browning – The Literature Network

b. Robert Browning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Robert Browning : The Poetry Foundation

329- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1812AD… THE MOSCOW CAMPAIGN…Napoleon’s determination to implement the Continental System had led him to …

a. Napoleon’s Moscow Campaign: 1812 – A Web of English History

b.French invasion of Russia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Napoleon’s Russian campaign: From the Niemen to Moscow

330- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1813AD…THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE…The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813…

a. The Battle of Lake Erie – Perry’s Victory & International Peace

b.The Battle of Lake Erie – Sep 10, 1813 – HISTORY.com

c. The Battle of Lake Erie – Perry’s Victory & International Peace

331- NAPOLEON 1815AD… With the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Papal States were restored once more. ….. 

a. Temporal power (papal) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Papal States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

. c. Napoleon and the Catholic Church – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

332- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1815-1825AD…WESTERN EUROPE AND THE HOLY ALLIANCE…

a. The Holy Alliance : Western Civilization II Guides

b. Holy Alliance – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Holy Alliance | Europe | Britannica.com

333- HENRY DAVID THOREAU: 1817-1862AD…writer, naturalist, philosopher, pencil maker, surveyor, Transcendentalist, inspector of …

a. Henry David Thoreau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Henry David Thoreau – Philosopher, Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

c.Henry David Thoreau Biography | List of Works, Study Guides

334- KARL MARX: 1818-1883AD…. thinker of the 19th century… Karl Marx – philosopher and writer of The Communist Manifesto…

a. Karl Marx (1818-1883) | Issue 102 | Philosophy Now

b.Karl Marx – died 1883AD – Philosophy – Winning-Teams.com

c.Karl Marx – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

335- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COMMUNISM?…

a. What is communism? definition and meaning

b. What Is Communism? – YouTube

c. What Is Communism? | Socialism Communism Capitalism

336- MAJOR SUBJECT… WHAT IS ECONOMICS?…

a.What Is Macro Economics – Over 100 Million Visitors – Ask.com

b.What is Economics? – Why Study Economics

c. What is Economics? – YouTube

337- WALT WHITMAN: 1819-1892AD…an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition  …

a.Walt Whitman – Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

b. Contents. Whitman, Walt. 1900. Leaves of Grass – Bartleby.com

338- QUEEN VICTORIA: 1819-1901AD…was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death …

a.Queen Victoria – Britannia.com

b. BBC – iWonder – Queen Victoria: The woman who redefined Britain’s

c. HM Queen Victoria (1819-1901) – Museum Victoria Collections

339- FRIEDRICH ENGELS: 1820-1895AD…Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and political theorist

a.Friedrich Engels – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) | Heidi Rimke – Academia.edu

c.Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Philosoph und Unternehmer

340- SUSAN B. ANTHONY:1820-1906AD…was an American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffrage …

a. Susan B. Anthony House :: Her Story

b.Susan B. Anthony – Publisher, Civil Rights Activist, Editor, Women’s

c. Susan B. Anthony Quotes – Famous Quotes

341- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A PHILOSOPHER?…

a. What is Philosophy? / Undergraduate Program / Programs

b. Islamic philosophy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Philosopher | Define Philosopher at Dictionary.com

342- FYODOR DOSTOYEVSKY: 1821-1881AD…Dostoyevsky’s literary works explore human psychology in the context of the …

a.Fyodor Dostoyevsky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Fyodor Dostoevsky (Dostoyevsky) | Crime and Punishment | The

c.Fyodor Dostoevsky Biography | List of Works, Study Guides

343- ULYSSES S. GRANT: 1822-1885AD…Ulysses S. Grant rose from command of an Illinois regiment to general-in-chief of all Union armies during the American Civil War …

a. Grant, Ulysses S. (1822–1885) – Encyclopedia Virginia

b. Ulysses S. Grant – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

c. Ulysses S. Grant | whitehouse.gov

344- RUTHERFORD B. HAYES: 1822-1893AD…was the 19th President of the United States (1877–81). As president, he oversaw the end of …

a. Rutherford B. Hayes – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b.Rutherford B. Hayes | whitehouse.gov

c.Rutherford B. Hayes Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

345- SPECIAL TOPIC…AMERICAN CIVIL WAR…widely known in the United States as  the Civil War fought from 1861 to 1865 to  …

a.American Civil War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.A Brief Overview of the American Civil War – Civil War Trust

c.American Civil War History – History Channel

346- JOSEPH FOURIER: 1822AD… Joseph Fourier’s analytical theory of heat is published…

a. The analytical theory of heat

b. Joseph Fourier – Atmospheric Chemistry Observations & Modeling

c. The Analytical Theory of Heat | work by Fourier | Britannica.com

347- LOUIS PASTEUR: 1822AD-1895AD… Louis Pasteur discovered two forms of tartaric acid crystals. Pasteur’s essay on fermentation founds the germ theory of disease.

a. Louis Pasteur Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. Louis Pasteur – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Louis Pasteur – Mini Biography – YouTube

348- SAMUEL BROWN: 1823AD… Samuel Brown begins production and sale of internal combustion engines…

a. Biography « Samuel M. Brown

b. Samuel L. Brown – University of Baltimore

c. Samuel Brown (engineer) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

349- GEORGE BOOLE: 1824AD …George Boole’s laws of thought… LAWS OF THOUGHT showed that logic is mathematical…

a. The Laws of Thought – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought: George Boole

c. George Boole (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

350- LEO TOLSTOY: 1828-1910AD…Leo Tolstoy was born in Tula Province, Russia. In the 1860s, he wrote his first great novel, War and Peace…

a.Leo Tolstoy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Leo Tolstoy – The Literature Network

c. Leo Tolstoy | Russian writer | Britannica.com

351- GEORGE STEPHENSON: 1828AD … Rocket steam locomotive…

a. Stephenson’sRocketlocomotive, 1829 – – Science Museum

b.Stephenson’s Rocket, The First Modern Steam Locomotive

c. George Stephenson’s First Steam Locomotive | History Today

352- JAMES M. CARROLL…1930 ..CURRENT…Chemist, News Paper Publisher, Insurance Salesperson, School Teacher, Author, writer, and book publisher, General Contractor, and Real Estate Broke, President and founder of Digital University of America,

a .Born out of the sun 2014

b. Mixturism

c. 3 steps to Success

d. Why We Dream

e. The Problem With Public Education

f. Words Every Good Reader Know

353- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1830-1857AD… THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA…The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France…

a. French conquest of Algeria – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Algeria on the Eve of the French Conquest

c. French Algeria 1830-1962 – The Algerian Story – Sites – Google

354- EMILY DICKINSON: 1830-1886AD…Emily Dickinson was one of the most famous American poets known for her unique and unconventional style of writing. ..

a. Biography of Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

b. Emily Dickinson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Emily Dickinson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

355- MICHAEL FARADAY: 1830AD Michael Faraday invents the dynamo. Faraday introduces the field concept…

a.Michael Faraday’s generator | The Royal Institution: Science Lives

b. Michael Faraday – Energy and kids – ESD – Bulgaria

c. Michael Faraday – Inventor of the Electric Motor – Inventors – About.com

356- JAMES C. MAXWELL: 1831-1879AD…Many physicists regard Maxwell as the 19th-century scientist having the greatest …

a.James C. Maxwell – Scholar, Physicist, Scientist – Biography.com

b.James Clerk MaxwellBiography, Facts and – Famous Scientists

.c James Clerk Maxwell – Encyclopedia.com

357- JAMES A. GARFIELD: 1831-1881AD…was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his …

a. James A. Garfield is born – Nov 19, 1831 – HISTORY.com

b. James A. Garfield – Miller Center

c.James A. Garfield Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

358- BENJAMIN HARRISON: 1833-1901AD…was the 23rd President of the United States (1889–93); he was the grandson of the ninth President …

a. Benjamin Harrison – U.S. President – Biography.com

b. Benjamin Harrison | whitehouse.gov

c.Benjamin Harrison Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

359- SAMUEL LONGHORN CLEMENS: 1835-1910AD… Mark Twain…better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He wrote …

a.Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) – Historic Missourians

b. Mark Twain – Writer – Biography.com

c. Diary of Adam and Eve | Celebrating Holidays

360-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?…

a.What is Psychology? | Simply Psychology

b.What Is Psychology? – About.com

c.BBC Science | Human Body & Mind | What is Psychology?

361- GROVER CLEVELAND: 1837-1908AD… was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States…

a. Grover Cleveland – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b. Grover Cleveland – Internet Public Library

c. Stephen] Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) | Princeton University Art

362- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1838AD…THE BEGINNING OF FREE TRADE…

a. Free trade – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Economic history: Why did The Economist favour free trade? | The

c. The History of “Free Trade” – Elegant Technology

363- JAMES J. HILL… 1838-1916AD…was “the last and greatest American railroad leader in the heroic era.” …

a. James J. Hill – – Biography.com

b.James J. Hill . Streamliners: America’s Lost Trains . WGBH American

c. James J. Hill Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

364- FRIEDRICH BESSEL: 1838AD… Friedrich Bessel measures the distance to star Cygnus…

a. Friedrich Bessel – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel | German astronomer | Britannica.com

c. 1838: Friedrich Bessel Measures Distance to a Star | Everyday

365- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1838/39AD… MATHIAS SCHLEIDEN AND THEODOR SCHWANN’S CELL THEORY OF LIFE…

a.Theodor Schwann Theorizes that All Living Things are Made of Cells

b.Theodor Schwann – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c.Matthias Jakob Schleiden – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

366- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1839-1860AD…THE OPENING OF CHINA…Past and present information…

a.The Opening to China Part I: the First Opium War, the United States

b.1972 Nixon visit to China – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Insights from Nixon’s visit to China

367- WILLIAM JAMES: 1842-1910AD…was America’s greatest psychologist, and became one of its great philosophers. In The Principles of Psychology (1890) he investigated …

a. William James (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. William James Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.William James (1842-1910) | Issue 105 | Philosophy Now

368- WILLIAM McKinley: 1843-1901AD…was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in …

a. William McKinley – U.S. President – Biography.com

b.William McKinley Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c.William McKinley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

369- HENRY JAMES: 1843-1916AD…noted American-born English essayist, critic, and author of the realism movement wrote The Ambassadors (1903), The Turn of the  …

a. Henry James – The Literature Network

b.Henry James Biography | List of Works, Study Guides & Essays ..

c.Henry James Quotes – Famous Quotations By Henry James

370- HENRI ROUSSEAU: 1844-1910AD… was a French Post-Impressionist painter… 

a. Henri Rousseau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Art by Henri Rousseau – Museum Syndicate

c. Rousseau, Henri – Biographical Dictionary – s9.com

371- SAMUEL F. B. MORSE: 1844AD… Samuel F.B. Morse’s pilot installation of an electric telegraph…

a. Samuel F.B. Morse | American artist and inventor | Britannica.com

b.Samuel F.B. Morse: Inventor of the Telegraph and Morse Code

c. Samuel F. B. Morse – Inventor – Biography.com

372- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1845-1847AD …THE DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE…

a. Northwest Passage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Sir John Franklin: Fabled Arctic ship found – BBC News – BBC.com

c.Northwest Passage Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

373- ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL: 1847-1922AD…the Scottish-born American scientist best known as the inventor of the telephone…

a.Alexander Graham Bell – Educator, Scientist, Inventor, Linguist

b. lexander Graham Bell – Inventions – HISTORY.com

c. BBC – History – Alexander Graham Bell

374- THOMAS EDISON: 1847-1931AD…was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced …

a. Thomas Alva Edison, Inventor (1847 – 1931) – Genealogy – Geni

b.Thomas Alva Edison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.Thomas Edison Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

375- HERMANN HELMHOLTZ: 1847AD…  achieved a staggering number of scientific results, including the formulation of energy conservation, the vortex equations for fluid …

a. Hermann von Helmholtz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. Hermann von Helmholtz – 9ways Academia

c. Lydia Patton, Hermann Von helmholtz – PhilPapers

376- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1847-1849AD…THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA…

a. 1848 California Gold Discovery – Coloma, California

b. The Discovery of GoldCalifornia History Collection

c. James Marshall: California’s Gold Discoverer | History Net: Where

377- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1848AD…THE FRENCH REVOLUTION…

a. French Revolution of 1848 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The French Revolution of 1848: History, Causes & Events – Study.com

c.French History Timeline – Soft Schools

378-SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS PROGRESSIVISM?…Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems… 

a. Progressive | Define Progressive at Dictionary.co

b. The Progressive Era (1890 – 1920)

c. What’s the Difference Between a Liberal and a Progressive?

379- WILLIAM RANKINE: 1850AD …William Rankine coins “energy” for Kraft; Rudolph Clausius founds thermodynamics, coins the term entropy…

a. William John Macquorn Rankine | Scottish engineer | Britannica.com

b. William John Macquorn Rankine – Encyclopedia.com

c. Geotechnical Engineering Hall of Fame: Rankine – EJGE

380- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS CONSERVATISM?…

a. conservatism | political philosophy | Britannica.com

b. What’s a Neoconservative? | The American Conservative

c. What are differences between a socialist, a democrat, a republican

381- WILLIAM THOMSON: 1851AD William Thomson proclaims the arrow of time… was an Irish mathematical physicist and engineer …

a.William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.William Thomson, Baron Kelvin | Scottish engineer, mathematician

c.BBC – History – Historic Figures: Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin

382- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1851AD…THE GREAT EXHIBITION…was the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It was organised by Henry Cole and Prince Albert…

a. The Great Exhibition – Victoria and Albert Museum

b. The Great Exhibition – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Interior of the Great Exhibition: 1851 – Museum of London Prints

383- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1853-1854AD …THE OPENING OF JAPAN…Commodore Perry was sent to Japan  … The treaty mandated that two Japanese ports be opened…

a. The United States and the Opening to Japan, 1853 – 1830–1860

b.Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854) | Asia for Educators ..

c.Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854) | Asia for Educators

384- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A COLLECTIVE MONOPOLY?.. fewer than ten corporations that control over ninety percent of a good or service in an industry..

a.. Mixturism

b. people power price control

385- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1854-1856AD…THE CRIMEAN WAR…war fought mainly on the … British and French fleets entered the Black Sea… 

a. Crimean War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Crimean War | Eurasian history [1853-1856] | Britannica.com

c. BBC – History – The Crimean War

386- OSCAR WILDE: 1854-1900AD…was an Irish playwright, novelist, essayist, and poet. After writing in different forms …

a. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)

b.Oscar Wilde – Writer – Biography.com

c. A Man of Culture: May 2011

387- WOODROW WILSON: 1856-1924AD…was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United  …

a.Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) – The George Washington University

b.BBC – History – Historic Figures: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)

c.Thomas Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States (1856

388- SIGMUND FREUD: 1856-1939AD…The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis

a.Sigmund Freud – My Webspace files

b.The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis (1910) – DSpace@MIT

c. PSYCHOTHERAPY – Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Documentales

d. Carl Jung & Psychological Types | MBTI® Type Today

e. Alfred Adler – Psychology History

389- HENRY FORD: 1856-1943AD… Henry Ford and the Model T…Model T revolutionized transportation in America.

a.Henry Ford Model T Documentary Full video – YouTube

b. Henry Ford – Full Episode – Biography.com

c. Henry Ford – PBS

390- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SLAVERY…Slavery is defined as “the condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership…

a. What is slavery? – Anti Slavery Australia

b. What is forced labour? – Anti Slavery Australia

c. Triangular Trade: Route, System & Role in Slavery – Video & Lesson

391- WILLIAM PERKIN: 1856AD…William Perkin discovers the first synthetic dye... From this modest beginning grew the highly …

a. William Henry Perkin | Chemical Heritage Foundation

b William Henry Perkin Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. Chemistry during the 19th Century ( 1801 A.D. – 1900 A.D.)

392- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1857AD… THE INDIAN MUTINY…By the year 1857 the British had established complete political control of India. 

a. Indian Mutiny | Indian history | Britannica.com

b. British India and the ‘Great Rebellion‘ – BBC

c. 57 stunning images from the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 – MSN.com

393- WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT: 1857-1930AD…was an American jurist and statesman who served as the 27th President of the United States …

a. William Howard Taft | whitehouse.gov

b. Biography of William Howard Taft

c.William Howard Taft Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

394- ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE: 1858AD .. essay on evolution by natural selection…

a. Alfred Russel Wallace – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace

c. Alfred Russel Wallace | British naturalist | Britannica.com

395- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS OPTIMISM?…The Optimist’s Creed… memorize it!…Promise Yourself. To be SO STRONG that nothing can disturb your peace of mind.

a.Positive psychology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Optimist Creed – Optimist International

c.The Optimist Creed (Tarcher Success Classics): Christian D. Larson

d. The Optimist Creed: Promise Yourself… – YouTube

396- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1861AD-1865AD… AMERICAN CIVIL WAR…widely known in the United States as simply the Civil … was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine…

a. American Civil War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Civil War Maps – Library of Congress

c.American Civil War 18611865YouTube

397- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1862AD… .MORRILL LAND GRANT ACT… triggers growth of engineering education in the U.S… was also known as the Land Grant College Act...

a. The Morrill Act of 1862

b. LandGrant College Act of 1862 | United States legislation ..

c. The Morrill Act and the LandGrant Colleges – University of Kentucky

398- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?…the study of society; a social science involving the study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies…

a.What is Sociology? | Department of Sociology

b. American Sociological Association: What is Sociology?

c. An Introduction to Sociology – American Sociological Association

399- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863AD… THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES…Lincoln issued the final Emancipation … With the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation…

a. 10 Facts about the Emancipation Proclamation – Civil War Trust

b. Emancipation Proclamation – American Civil War – HISTORY.com

c.Featured Document: The Emancipation Proclamation

400- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863AD… THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.. Although the Battle of Gettysburg did not end the war, it was the great battle of …

a. Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War – HISTORY.com

b.Battle Of Gettysburg | History Net: Where History Comes Alive

c. The Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 – EyeWitness to History

401- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863-1867AD… RISE AND FALL OF THE MEXICAN EMPIRE…

a. First Mexican Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Second Mexican Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Mexican Empire Will Rise To Challenge The USA – YouTube

402- JAMES K. POLK…was the 11th President of the United States from 1845 to 1849, the last strong President until the Civil …

a. James K. Polk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James K. Polk | whitehouse.gov

c. James K. Polk – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

403- RUDYARD KIPLING: 1865-1936AD…one of the best-known of the late Victorian poets and story- tellers. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907.

a.Rudyard Kipling : The Poetry Foundation

b.Rudyard Kipling Analysis – eNotes.com

c.If By Rudyard Kipling – Lectura Obligada | Estado51PRUSA.co copy the poem IF and hang it on your wall…

404- GREGOR MENDEL: 1865AD.. Mendel publishes results of his researches…For decades after Gregor Mendel published his famous paper on inherited traits in 1865 AD, the field …

a. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

b.LAYER-DISSERTATION.PDF – Texas A&M University

c.La nascita della genetica, Mendel – Home page di Giampiero

405- JAMES CLERK MAXWELL: 1865AD… A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field…A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field [James Clerk Maxwell]…

a.A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field: James Clerk

b. Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field – Wikipedia, the

c.electromagnetism – What is reduced momentum in “A Dynamical

406- AUGUSTE KEKULE: 1865AD… Auguste Kekule announces the ring structure of the benzene molecule… and the birth of the structural theory of organic chemistry in 1858. …

a.August Kekulé – New World Encyclopedia

b. Friedrich August Kekulé – Chemistry Explained

c.August Kekule and the birth of the structural theory of organic

407- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1866AD… LAYING OF THE TRANSATLANTIC CABLE…The transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably…

a. Transatlantic telegraph cable – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. First transatlantic telegraph cable completed – Aug 05, 1858

. c.How the first cable was laid across the Atlantic (Wired UK)

408- H. G. WELLS: 1866-1946AD… Outline of History…

a. The Outline of History (2 Volumes): H.G. Wells, Raymond Postgate

b.The Outline of History: The Whole Story of Man (2 Volumes): H. G.

c. The Outline of History – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

409- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1867AD… ANESTHETICS AND ANTISEPTICS…Anesthetics are chemicals that makes a patient go unconscious and/or feel no pain. 

a. What are anesthetics and antiseptics – Answers.com

b.Antisepsis – used, first, anesthetic, blood, body, uses, history

c.BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Anesthetics for pain

410- WILBUR AND OLIVER WRIGHT: 1867-1912AD… First flight of and airplane…Wilbur and Orville Wright were American inventors and pioneers of aviation. In 1903 the… 

a. Wright Brothers – Inventions – HISTORY.com

b. The Wright Brothers – Biography.com

c. Wilbur and Orville Wright’s First Flight – America’s Library

411- MARIE CURIE: 1867-1934AD… Marie Curie names radioactivity, isolates polonium, and then radium…Marie and Piere Curie’s research led to the isolation of polonium…

a. Marie Curie | Biography | atomicarchive.com

b. Marie Curie | Biography | atomicarchive.com

c. Marie Curie – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

412- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1869AD…THE SUEZ CANAL…Egypt was the first country to dig a man-made canal across its lands to connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea…

a. Canal History – Suez Canal Authority

b. 9 Fascinating Facts About the Suez Canal – History in the Headlines

c. Suez Canal: History and Overview – Geography

413- MAHATMA GANDHI : 1869-1948AD…I know the path. It is straight and narrow. It is like the edge of a sword. I rejoice to walk on it. I weep when I slip. God’s word is…

a. Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) – Columbia University

b. I Know The Path – Mind of Mahatma Gandhi : Complete Book Online

c. Civilization V Leader | Gandhi of India – YouTube

414-MEXICAN– AMERICA WAR…1846-1848…Between 1846 and 1848, the United States and Mexico, went to war. It was a defining event for both nations…

a. The U.S.-Mexican War . War (1846-1848) | PBS

b. The U.S.-Mexican War | PBS

c.History of the War

415- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1870-1871ADFRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR , 1870–71, conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German…

a. FrancoPrussian War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. FrancoGerman War | European history | Britannica.com

c. The Franco Prussian War – International World History Project

416- VLADIMIR LENIN: 1870-1924A…Lenin was succeeded by Stalin after his death in 1924.

a. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924)

b. Time to Bury Lenin – The Catholic Thing

c. Vladimir Lenin – Alamy

417- SPANISH–AMERICA WAR…On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898.

a. SpanishAmerican War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Spanish Americans – Countries and Their Cultures

c. Spanish American War – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

418- GERTRUDE STEIN: 1874-1946AD…was a modern American writer.

a. Gertrude Stein – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Gertrude Stein : The Poetry Foundation

c.Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) – Georgetown University

419- HERBERT HOOVER: 1874-1964AD… Hoover  was the 31st President of the United States (1929–33)… a professional mining engineer and …Great Depression…

a. Herbert Hoover – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Herbert Hoover Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.President Herbert Hoover on TV! (1960) – YouTube

420- WINSTON CHURCHILL: 1874-1965AD…Although he is best known for his service as prime minister of Great Britain during World War 2, …

a.Museum Syndicate: Art by Winston Churchill

b. Winston Churchill – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

cWinston Churchill Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

421- HORACE MANNoften called the Father of the Common School, began his career … of Education in 1837, he used his position to enact major educational reform….

a.Horace Mann – PBS

b.Horace Mann | American educator | Britannica.com

c. Horace Mann, the End of Free-Market Education – Mackinac Center

422- KONRAD ADENAUER: 1876-1967AD…was the first chancellor of the German Federal Republic…

a. Konrad Adenauer: a pragmatic democrat and tireless unifier – Europa

b.Konrad Adenauer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. Konrad Adenauer | The German Way & More

423- ROBERT KOCH 1877AD… isolates the cause of anthrax. Koch isolates tuberculosis bacterium. Koch isolates cholera bacterium…

a.Robert Koch – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Salt in Western New York: Retsof by Robert Koch

c. Glo Germ Classroom Kit Lessons – Educational Innovations

424- NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943 AD)the eccentric genius known as the ‘wild man of electronics’, was without doubt one of the greatest minds in history…

a. Nikola Tesla – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Nikola Tesla – Engineer, Inventor – Biography.com

c.Nikola Tesla (1856-1943 AD): Wireless Technology & Free Energy

425- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1878-1903AD… THE PONTIFICATION OF POPE LEO XIII…has seen the Catholic Church gain numbers and strength in America during his pontificate

a. Full text of “The life of Pope Leo XIII : containing a full and authentic

b. Leo XIII | pope | Britannica.com

c.Leo XIII Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

426- JOSEPH STALIN: 1879-1953AD…was the second leader of the Soviet Union. …

a.Joseph Stalin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Joseph Stalin, 1879-1953 – The History Guide

c.Joseph Stalin – Dictator – Biography.com

427- ALBERT EINSTEIN: 1879-1955AD… Einstein’s “miracle year” of publication. Einstein’s general theory of relativity…

a.Albert Einstein – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. TOP 5 Scientists of the World – Employment News – Sarkari Naukri

c. Top 10 greatest Scientists who changed the world – EList10

428- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1881AD… THE RISE MAHDISM…The Mahdist Revolution was an Islamic revolt against the Egyptian government in the Sudan. 

a.Mahdist Revolution (1881-1898) | The Black Past: Remembered and

b.Mahdist Sudan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.THE DOCTRINE OF MAHDISM – MEMRI

429- MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK: 1881-1938AD… the founder of the Turkish Republic and its first President, stands as a towering figure of the 20th Century…

a.Mustafa Kemal Atatürk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK ( 1881-1938 ) – YouTube

c. M.Kemal ATATÜRK (1881-193∞) – Facebook

430- SPECIAL TOPIC… NATURE’S BASIC LAW OF ECONOMICS…There are only two kinds of resource : People and Natural …All goods and service flow from the action of people resources on natural resources…Money is a medium of exchange…

a. Mixturism…

b. Endowed with Democracy, an individual Bill Of Rights, and the

c. The Philosophy of Mixturism – Internet Free Press

431- PABLO PICASSO: 1881-1973AD..The artistic genius of Pablo Picasso has impacted the development of modern and contemporary art with unparalleled magnitude….

a.Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art

b. Pablo Picasso – Painter – Biography.com

c. Paintings On The Wall – Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) – Paul McCartney

432- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1882AD… ITALIAN COLONIZATION ON THE RED SEA…The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869…

a.Italian Colonization (1890-1941) – GlobalSecurity.org

b. Italian) Colonialism Did To My People Of (Eritrean) Kebessa – Awate

c. Political History of Eritrea before colonisation

433- JAMES JOYCE: 1882-1941AD…is one of Ireland’s most influential and celebrated writers. His most famous work is Ulysses (1922) which follows the movements of  …

a. James Joyce – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Life | The James Joyce Centre

c.A brief biographical account of James Joyce, with resources.

434- VIRGINIA WOOLF: 1882-1941AD…was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century...

a. Virginia Woolf – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Woolf, Virginia, 1882-1941: free web books, online

c.Woolf, Virginia (1882-1941) – British Library

435- FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT: 1882-1945AD…was the 32nd President of the United States of America...

a. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945)

b.F D Roosevelt Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

436- JOHN M. KEYNES: 1883-1946AD…was an English economist whose ideas fundamentally …

a. BBC – History – John Maynard Keynes

b. John Maynard Keynes – Career Timeline

c. John Maynard Keynes – Journalist, Economist – Biography.com

437- ELEANOR ROOSEVELT: 1884-1962AD…was an American politician, diplomat, and activist. She was the …

a. Eleanor Roosevelt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Eleanor Roosevelt – Diplomat, U.S. First Lady – Biography.com

c.Eleanor Roosevelt Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

438- HARRY S. TRUMAN: 1884-1972AD..He was Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s vice president for just 82 days before Roosevelt died and Truman ….

a. Truman: HST Biography – Harry S. Truman Library and Museum

b.Harry S. Truman – U.S. President – Biography.com

c. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Harry S Truman (1884-1972)

439- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1886AD… THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY…Private Train Journey from‎ Beijing through Mongolia to Moscow..

a. Great Siberian Railway – travelallrussia.com

b. How to plan & book a journey on the TransSiberian Railway

c. TransSiberian Railway – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

440- T. S. ELIOT: 1888-1965AD…T.S. Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1888. He published his first poetic masterpiece, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,”…

a. T.S. Eliot – Writer – Biography.com

b.A Man of Culture: American Poetry XXII – T.S. Eliot – The Hollow Men

c. A Man of Culture: American Poetry X – T.S. Eliot – The Love Song of J

441- ADOLF HITLER: 1889-1945AD…was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from …

a. Adolf Hitler – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945 – The History Guide

c.Adolf Hitler – Uncyclopedia – Wikia

442- JAWAHARIAL NEHRU: 1889-1964AD…was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, and had advocated for India’s release from British rule...

a. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)

b. Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889-1964) – King Encyclopedia

c. Nehru, Jawaharlal – Biographical Dictionary – s9.com

443- DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER: 1890-1969AD… as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 …

a. Dwight D. Eisenhower – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)

c.Dwight D. Eisenhower Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

444- CHARLES de GAULLE: 1890-1970AD…was a military leader and the 18th President of France. ..

a. Charles de Gaulle – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970)

c.Charles De Gaulle Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

445- AGATHA CHRISTIE: 1890-1976AD…Best known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, Agatha Christie’s books have sold over a billion copies …

a. Agatha Christie – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Agatha Christie – Author, Playwright – Biography.com

c. Agatha Christie Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

446- J. R. R. TOLKIEN: 1892-1973AD…was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who …

a. J. R. R. Tolkien – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.J. R. R. Tolkien – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. JRR Tolkien Biography – The Tolkien Society

447- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THE INFINITESIMAL UNIFYING PARTICLE?…A discovery of the unifying infinitesimal particle and its relationship to the organization and behavior of all matter. Born Out. Of The Sun …

a. Born out of the sun 2014

448- ALDOUS HUXLEY: 1894-1963AD….. English novelist and critic, best known for his dystopian novel Brave New World (1931). Besides novels he published travel books, …

a. Aldous Huxley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Aldous Huxley – The Literature Network

c.  Aldous Huxley Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

449- RICHARD BUCK MINSTER FULLER: 1895-1983AD…was a  inventor and visionary who did not limit himself to one field but worked as a ‘comprehensive..

a.Buckminster Fuller – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. .Richard Buckminster Fuller – Environmental Activist, Architect..

c.About Fuller | The Buckminster Fuller Institute

450- HENRI BECQUEREL: 1896AD… Discovery of the X-RAYS… discovers radioactivity…was using naturally fluorescent minerals to study the properties of xrays… 

a. The Discovery of Radioactivity

b. Henri Becquerel – Facts – Nobelprize.org

c.Benchmarks: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity on February ..

451- GUGLIELMO MARCONI: 1896AD…  introduces telegraphy “without wires.”…Nobel Prize-winning physicist… Guglielmo Marconi developed the first effective system of radio …

a. Guglielmo Marconi – Inventions – HISTORY.com

b. Guglielmo Marconi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Guglielmo Marconi – Physicist, Inventor, Entrepreneur – Biography.com

452- F. SCOTT FITZGERALD… 1896-1940AD… was an American novelist and short story writer, whose works are the paradigmatic …

a.F. Scott Fitzgerald – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.and short story writer, whose works are the paradigmatic …

c.F. Scott Fitzgerald – Author – Biography.com

453-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ASTRONOMY?…astronomy is the study of the sun, moon, stars, planets and other objects and phenomena in space. It has a long, rich history...

a.What are Science and Astronomy

bAstronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.  Astronomy – Introduction and History of the Study of Stars

454- WILLIAM FAULKNER: 1897-1962AD…was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi...

a. William Faulkner – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

b.William Faulkner – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c. William Faulkner – Author – Biography.com

455- J .J. THOMPSON: 1897AD… J.J. Thompson discovers the electron…

a. Joseph John Thomson | Chemical Heritage Foundation

b. Cambridge Physics – Discovery of the Electron

c. Discovery of the Electron – PBS

456- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1898AD …THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO…The Battle of Santiago de Cuba, fought between Spain and the United States on July 3, 1898…

a. Battle of Santiago – Spanish American War

b. Battle of Santiago | Spanish-American War | Britannica.com

c. BATTLE OF SANTIAGO | OFFICIAL WEBSITE

457- SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DO SEARCH ENGINES WORK?…There are three basic stages for a search engine: crawling – where content is discovered; indexing, …

a. How Search Engines Work – The Beginners Guide to SEO – Moz

b BBC Bitesize – How do search engines work?

c. How Search Works – The Story – Inside Search – Google

d How Do Search Engines Work? – YouTube

458-SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DO COMPUTERS WORK?…

a.How Computers Work: Information (Part I) – YouTube

b.Computer – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Computer science – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

459- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1919AD… THE PEACE CONFERENCE…The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the Allied victors…

a. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Paris Peace Conference – Office of the Historian

c. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

460- SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DOES THE INTERNET WORK?..The Internet lets you transfer information around the world in seconds. How does all that data get where… 

a. How does the Internet work? | HowStuffWorks

b. BBC Bitesize – How does the internet work?

c. How Does the Internet Work ? – YouTube

461- ERNEST HEMINGWAY: 1899-1961AD…was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His economical and understated style had a …

a. Ernest Hemingway – Author – Biography.com

b. Ernest Hemingway – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c.Ernest Hemingway Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

462- LEO STRAUSS: 1899-1973AD…was a German-Jewish philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy...

a. The Leo Strauss Center: Promoting the Study of Leo Strauss’s Thought

b.Reading Leo Strauss – University of Chicago Press

c.Leo Strauss – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

463- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1900AD…THE BOXER MOVEMENT…officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China…

a. Boxer Rebellion – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. Boxer Rebellion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Boxer Rebellion | Chinese history | Britannica.com

464- HUGO de VRIES: 1900AD……was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the …

a. Hugo de Vries :: DNA from the Beginning

b. Hugo de Vries | Dutch botanist and geneticist | Britannica.com

c. Hugo de Vries – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

465- MAX PLANCK: 1900AD… Max Planck’s quantum hypothesis…a German theoretical physicist whose work on quantum …

a. Max Planck – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

b. Max Planck – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c.Welcome to…the history of the atom. – Angelfire

466- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1902AD…THECORONATIONOF KING EDWARD…The coronation of Edward VII and his wife Alexandra as King and Queen of the United Kingdom…

a.oronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra – Wikipedia

b. Edward VII – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Coronation Of Edward Vii (1902) – YouTube

467- JOHN STEINBECK: 1902-1968AD…. was an American author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction…

a.John Steinbeck – Author – Biography.com

b. John Steinbeck – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c John Steinbeck (1902-1968) – Georgetown University

468- GEORGE ORWELL: 1903-1950AD… Orwell felt that political action and political speech were necessary in order to live a life of integrity and honor.

a.Why did George Orwell write Animal Farm? – eNotes.com

b. Why did George Orwell write Animal Farm? – eNotes.com

c. SparkNotes: Animal Farm: Context

469- WILLIAM BATESON: 1903AD… was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity , …

a. William Bateson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. William Bateson (1861-1926) :: DNA Learning Center

c.William Bateson | British biologist | Britannica.com

470-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS JUDGEMENT…the ability to judge, make a decision, or form an opinion objectively, authoritatively, and wisely, especially in matters…

a.Judgment | Definition of Judgment by Merriam-Webster

b.Judgment | Definition of Judgment by Merriam-Webster

c. Judgement – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

471- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1904AD… BUICK AUTOMOBILE… In the summer of 1904, the company built the first Flint Buick. … Buick began production with the Model B…

a. Buick Heritage Alliance (BHA) – Buick Motor Division History

b. History & Heritage of Buick

c.BUICK models & history – Auto Evolution

472- JEAN–PAUL SARTRE: 1905-1980AD…focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as existentialism...

a.JeanPaul Sartre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia… 

b. JeanPaul Sartre – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c.Sartre, Jean Paul: Existentialism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

473- AYN RAND: 1905-1982AD… the author of The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, both of which promote …

a. The Liberal Institute: Proto-Liberal Intellectuals

b. Ayn Rand – Writer – Biography.com

c. The Greatest Philosophers (Chronological) | Listology

474- SALVADOR ALLENDE: 1908-1973AD…became Chile’s first socialist president in 1970 before committing suicide during a 1973 military coup. … Presid

a. Salvador Allende – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Salvador Allende – President (non-U.S.) – Biography.com

c. Salvador Allende | president of Chile | Britannica.com

475- LYNDON  B. JOHNSON: 1908-1973AD… became the 36th president of the United States …. He died of a heart attack at age 64 on January 22, 1973, at his ranch.

a.Lyndon B. Johnson – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b.President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Biography – LBJ Presidential Library

c.Lyndon Baines Johnson (19081973) < Biographies < American

476- MOTHER TERESA: 1910-1997AD…The famous missionary to India, Mother Teresa (1910-1997 AD) valued silence as necessary to hear the voice of God. ..

a.Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta

b.Loose Lips Sink Ships – Official Regent University Blogs

c.All through her life, Mother Teresa served people selflessly. Read

477- THOMAS HUNT MORGAN: 1910AD… Thomas Hunt Morgan localizes the “gene” for fruit-fly eye color…

a. Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University

b.Thomas Hunt Morgan :: DNA from the Beginning

c. Thomas Hunt Morgan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

478- ERNEST RUTHERFORD: 1910AD …Ernest Rutherford’s Solar System model of the atom…

a.Ernest Rutherford – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

b.Ernest Rutherford – Physicist, Scientist – Biography.com

c. Ernest Rutherford | Chemical Heritage Foundation.

479- RONALD REAGAN: 1911-2004AD…Former President Ronald Reagan, whose movie-actor delivery and warm wit earned him the name...

a. Ronald Reagan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. President Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911 – 2004) – Genealogy – Geni

c. with over 150 million profiles of ancestors and living …

 

480- HENRIETTA  LEAVITT  SWANN: 1912AD… Henrietta Leavitt Swann’s variable-star cosmic “ruler.”

a 1912: Henrietta Leavitt Discovers the Distance Key | Everyday

b. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Henrietta Leavitt – PBS

c.A Science Odyssey: Then+Now: Physics and Astronomy – PBS

481- RICHARD NIXON: 1913-1994AD…President Nixon had been secretly recording ..led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon

a. Richard Nixon Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b.Richard Nixon – Wikipedia

c. Richard Milhous Nixon (1913 – 1994) – Find A Grave Memorial

482-  ROSA PARKS: 1913-2005AD…was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called ” the …

a. Rosa Parks – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Parks, Rosa (1913-2005) – King Encyclopedia

c.Parks, Rosa (1913-2005) | The Black Past: Remembered and

483- GERALD FORD: 1913-2006AD… was the President of the United States from 1974 to 1977. …

a.Gerald Ford – Wikipedia

b. Gerald Ford – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi

c. Gerald Ford – Wikipedia

484- WORLD WAR ONE 1914…WWI may have been the war to end all wars, but it was also the beginning of many military … By the time World War I ended in the defeat…

a.World War I – History Channel

b. World War One – The British Library

c. World War I – Battles, Facts, Videos & Pictures – History.com

485- NIELS BOHR: 1913AD… Niels Bohr’s quantum theory…When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light quantum is emitted. Bohr’s theory could explain… w

a. Niels Bohr – Facts – Nobel prize.org

b. Bohr model – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Niels Bohr: Biography & Atomic Theory – LiveScience

486- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1941AD…WORLD WAR II…World War II In HD Colour is a 13-episode television documentary series … The United States

 

a.SCENARIO: “World War II – 1941 AD” on the complete world map for

b.WWII – The Battle For Russia 1941 AD – Part 2 of 12 – In HD – YouTube

c.SCENARIO: “World War II – 1941 AD” for C3C on the complete world

487- JOHN F. KENNEDY: 1917-1963AD…was the 35th President of the United States. This biography … Born on. 29 May 1917 AD. Birthday … 22 November 1963 AD.

a. John F. Kennedy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Sr. (1917 – 1963) – Genealogy – Geni

c. John F. Kennedy – Biographical Dictionary – s9.com

488-  INDIRA GANDHI: 1917-1984AD…One of the strongest political leaders of Independent India, Indira Gandhi was the first woman to hold the office … 

a.Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – The 25 Most Powerful Women of – Time

b. Indira Gandhi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Manas: History and Politics, Indira Gandhi

489- NELSON MANDELA: 1918-2013AD…whose activism made him a central figure in ending apartheid in South Africa, went from a prisoner to president in his lifetime...

a.Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 – The Atlantic

b. Nelson Mandela Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 – The Atlantic

490- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1950AD …KOREAN WAR… began as a civil war between North and South Korea, but the conflict soon became international when…u

a.Korean War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Korean War – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

c.Douglas MacArthur – Facts & SummaryHISTORY.com

491- EVA PERON: 1919-1952AD…was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (1895–1974) and served as the First Lady of …

a. Eva Perón – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Eva “EvitaPerón: 1919–1952: Political Leader Biography – Worked

c. Evita Peron – Dittatori e regimi

492- POPE JOHN PAUL II: 1920-2005AD…The most traveled pope in history. During his papacy he has issued many letters …

a. Pope John Paul II – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.St. John Paul the Great icon by Theophilia on DeviantArt

c. Catholic Authorities Teach Theosis | New God Argument

493- EDWIN HUBBLE ..Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 – 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial  in establishing the field …announces that Andromeda is a galaxy. …

a.Edwin Hubble – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Edwin Powell Hubble – The man who discovered the cosmos | ESA

c.Edwin Hubble – Astronomer, Scientist – Biography.com

494- GEORGE H. W. BUSH: 1924AD-current… President of the United States…

a. George H. W. Bush – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. George H.W. Bush tweets health update – CNNPolitics.com – CNN.com

c. BANNED INTERVIEW with George Bush Jr. US PresidentYouTube

495- JIMMY CARTER: 1924AD-current… In a remarkable press conference marked by grace and devoid of self-pity, former President Jimmy Carter said Thursday that four spots of …

a. Jimmy Carter’s Doing Well on Cancer Treatment – NBC News

b.Jimmy Carter cancer: Melanoma on the brain – CNNPolitics.com

c. Jimmy Carter, American Superhero – The Daily Beast

496- MALCOLM X: 1925-1965AD… most visible proponent of Black Nationalism, Malcolm X’s challenge to the multiracial, nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King, Jr., helped set …

a. Malcolm X (1925-1965) – King Encyclopedia

b.Malcolm X (1925-1965) | The Black Past: Remembered and

c. Malcolm X Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

497-  MARGARET THATCHER: 1925-2013AD…The first female prime minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher was a controversial …

a.Margaret Thatcher – British History – HISTORY.com

b.Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) – Margaret Thatcher Foundation

c.Margaret Thatcher Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

498- HEISENBERG SCHRODINGER: 1925AD Heisenberg and Schrodinger found quantum mechanics. Heisenberg uncertainty principle; Statistical interpretation of…

a. Heisenberg / Uncertainty Principle – American Institute of Physics

b. Heisenberg and Schrödinger get pulled over for speeding. : Jokes

c. Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg devise a quantum

499- MARTIN LUTHER KING: 1929-1968AD…was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil …

a. Martin Luther King, Jr. – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Major King Events Chronology: 1929-1968 | The Martin Luther King

c. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) | New Georgia Encyclopedia

500- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1929AD-1939AD …GREAT DEPRESSION…The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took …… 

a. The Great Depression – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b.Great Depression – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

cThe Great Depression . Surviving the Dust Bowl . WGBH American

501- BORIS YELTSIN: 1931-2007AD…The first president of post-Soviet Russia, Boris Yeltsin, died on April 23 in a Moscow hospital of heart failure at the age of 76. He will go down in …

a Boris Yeltsin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Boris Yeltsin | president of Russia | Britannica.com

c Boris Yeltsin Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline.

502- MIKHAIL GORBACHEV: 1931AD-current…a Nobel Peace Prize winner, is one of the notable leaders of former Soviet Union…

a .Mikhail Gorbachev – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Mikhail Gorbachev Fast Facts – CNN.com

c.Mikhail Gorbachev Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

503- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1931AD… ELECTRON MICROSCOPE IS INVENTED…First virus “seen” using the electron microscope…

a.Microscopes Projection – Powerful 5000x Zoom Microscopes

b. Electron Microscopes – tescan-usa.com

c. Scan Electron Microscope – webcrawler.com

504- KARL JANSKY: 1935AD .. was an American physicist and radio engineer who in August 1931 first discovered radio waves ….

a Karl Jansky – National Radio Astronomy Observatory

b. Karl Guthe Jansky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Karl Jansky Father of Radio Astronomy | Astronotes

505- ALAN TURING: 1936AD…was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, crypt analyst and … Alan Turing publishes his principle …

a. Alan Turing – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – iWonder – Alan Turing: Creator of modern computing

c. A History of Computers

506- HARRY S.TRUMAN…1884-1972…was the 33rd President of the United States … Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949. ….. 

a. Truman: HST Biography – Harry S. Truman Library and Museum

b. Harry S. Truman | whitehouse.gov

c. Harry S. Truman – U.S. President – Biography.com

507-UNITED NATIONS…The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The mission and work of the …

a. About the UN | United Nations

b. UN Careers

c. United Nations Foundation

508- WARREN WEAVER: 1938AD …was an American scientist, mathematician, and science administrator … coins the term molecular biology…

a.Warren Weaver – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. WARREN WEAVER – National Academy of Sciences

c. Computer Pioneers – Warren Weaver – History Committee archive

509- LEE HARVEY OSWALD: 1939-1963AD…was an American sniper who assassinated President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963...

a. Lee Harvey Oswald – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Lee Harvey Oswald – Spartacus Educational

c.Lee Harvey Oswald Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

510- EVENTS/IDEA- VIETNAM WAR…also known as the Second Indochina War, and also known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against …

a. Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Role of the United States in the Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free

c.Vietnam War – A Day in Vietnam | 1967 | American Cold YouTube

511- EVENTS/IDEAS: NATO.. is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member… countries…

a. NATO – Member countries

b.What is NATO?

c. NATO – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

512- EVENT: COLD WAR…. 1945-1989… was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc..

a. Cold War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Cold War – Causes, Events, Pictures & Videos – History.com

c.Cold War – History Channel ..

513-RONALD REAGAN..12911-2004…President Jimmy Carter congratulates Ronald Reagan, the new president ……

a. President Ronald Reagan Timeline

b. Presidency of Ronald Reagan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Best of Ronald ReaganYouTube

514- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1945AD…FIRST ATOMIC BOMB… Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on Aug 06, 1945…

a.Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – Aug 06, 1945 – HISTORY.com

b.Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – World War II – HISTORY.com

c.Atomic Bomb | HISTORY

515- GEORGE H. W. BUSH: 1924AD-current…41st President of the United States (1989–1993), 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–1989); Director of the CIA …

a. George H. W. BushWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Electoral history of George H. W. BushWikipedia, the free

c. The Hidden Hard-line Side of George H.W. Bush – Politico

516- BILL CLINTON: 1946AD-current… is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United …

a.Bill Clinton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bill Clinton: Life After the Presidency—Miller Center

c.Bill Clinton: Biography, College, Education, Economy YouTube

517- EVENTS/IDEAS:  BELL LABS…1947AD… The Bell Labs work on the transistor emerged from war-time efforts to produce extremely pure germanium …

a. An Outline of the History of the Transistor – PBS

b. Bell System Memorial- Bell Labs (Who Really Invented The

c. World’s First Transistor Invented by Bell Telephone Laboratories

518- GEORGE GAMOW: 1947-49AD… and colleagues propose the Big Bang Theory….

a.George Gamow, Gifted Physicist – YouTube

b.George GamowWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Edward Teller – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

519- JAMES M. CARROLL..1930-CURRENT..James M. Carroll. A discovery of the unifying infinitesimal particle and its relationship to the organization and behavior of all matter. Born Out Of The Sun 1998…

a. Born out of the sun 2014

b. Born out of the sun 2014

c. Born out of the sun 2014

520- CLAUDE SHANNON: 1948AD … about the branch of computer science and mathematics…The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in computer… 

a. Information theory – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Theoretical computer science – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Claude Shannon: Reluctant Father of the Digital Age | MIT

521- WATSON AND CRICK: 1953AD …Watson and Crick announce the double-helix structure of DNA…

a.Watson and Crick discover chemical structure of DNA – Feb 28, 1953

b.Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA – PBS

c. Jacob’s Stick (Genesis 30: 37-41) – Teachinghearts

522- STEVE JOBS: 1955-2011AD…was an American information technology entrepreneur and inventor…

a. Steve JobsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Steve Jobs Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.Steve Jobs‘ most inspiring Speech !! – YouTube

523- TIM BURNERS-LEE: 1955AD-current… introduces the World Wide Web…In March 1989, Tim BernersLee submitted a proposal for an information…

a. Tim BernersLee – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Tim BernersLee – World Wide Web @ 25 – YouTube

c. How the World Wide Web just happened – Tim Berners-Lee – YouTube

524- BILL GATES: 1955AD-current…an American business magnate, philanthropist, investor, and computer programmer. In 1975, Gates and  …

a.Bill Gates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bill Gates – Business Leader, Entrepreneur, Philanthropist

c.Life Story of Bill Gates – Documentary – YouTube

525- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1956AD…DARTMOUTH CONFERENCE… on artificial intelligence…propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence

a. Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence (AI) Conference – Internet

b. The Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference: The next 50 years

c.Dartmouth Conferences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

526- EVENTS/IDEAS: SPUTNIK I 1957AD…orbits the Earth…Sputnik launched on Oct 04, 1957. … its elliptical orbit had an apogee of 584 miles and a perigee (nearest point) …

a. Sputnik 1 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Sputnik – NASA’s History Office

c. Sputnik launched – Oct 04, 1957 – HISTORY.com

527- JACK KIRBY AND ROBERT NOYCE: 1958AD… Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments patented the principle of integration …invent the integrated circuit…. 

a. Integrated Circuit – History of Computers

b. Robert Noyce – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. History of Computing – Computer Science & Engineering

528- JAMES L. CLAYTON…1934-CURRENT…SUCCESS STORY…Tennessee cotton picker to Wall Street…Mobile Home King, banker, country music singer, lawyer, engineer, pilot,TV host, philanthropist…

a. Trailer King – Forbes

b.Clayton Bank and Trust | Board of Directors

c.Mid Country Financial | James L Clayton

d.Clayton Homes Inc Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

e. Ocwen and the Golden Rule Lessons that Paid off for Clayton Homes

529- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A REPUBLIC is a sovereign state or country which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals …

a.Republic vs. Democracy – 1215.org

b.What is Democracy? – YouTube

c An Important Distinction: Democracy versus Republic – LEXREX.com

530- PENZIAS AND WILSON: 1963AD… detect microwave background radiation…Bell Labs radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were using…

a. rno Penzias and Robert Wilson – Bell Labs, Holmdel, NJ

b.Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation – PBS

c Discovery of Cosmic Background Radiation – HyperPhysics.

531- EDWARD LORENZ: 1963AD…was an American mathematician, meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory…

a.Edward Norton Lorenz – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Edward Norton Lorenz – Publications – MIT

c.Edward Lorenz, father of chaos theory and butterfly effect, dies at 90

532- MURRAY GELL-MANN AND GEORGE ZWEIG: 1964AD… found quantum chromodynamics…George Zweig giving a speech at Department of Physics…  ..

a. Modern Particle Theory timeline – CERN

b George Zweig – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Fifty years of quarks | CERN

533- NEIL ARMSTRONG: 1969AD… walks on the Moon…“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon. July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind.” …

a. Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the – BrainyQuote

b.Neil Armstrong photographed just minutes after becoming the first

c.Armstrong walks on moon – Jul 20, 1969 – HISTORY.com

534- EVENTS/IDEAS: ARPANet 1971AD … first test of, leading to the Internet in the 1990s. Electro-weak unification wins acceptance…

a. History of Computing – Computer Science & Engineering

b. Introduction to Computer Science Emergence of Modern Computer

c.History of computers – Modern – SlideShare

535- EVENTS/IDEAS: RECOMBINANT DNA:1972AD … research begins… Recombinant DNA technology, joining together of DNA molecules from two different species…

a. Recombinant DNA – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. recombinant DNA technology | genetics | Britannica.com

c.An Introduction to Recombinant DNA

536- EVENTS/IDEAS: PDP-8. 1973AD… Although some people consider the CDC 160 the first minicomputer, the PDP8 was the definitive minicomputer… 

a. Online PDP8 Home Page

b.PDP8 Document Search Results – Online PDP8

c. Doug Jones’s DEC PDP8 FAQs – University of Iowa

537- ALAN GUTH: 1980AD…  a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, known mainly for his work on elementary particle theory and how particle theory is applicable to…

a.Alan Guth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Alan Guth – Important Scientists – The Physics of the Universe

c.Alan Guth: Waiting for the Big Bang | Innovators

538- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1981 AD IBM PC… is introduced…personal computers were available as early as the mid-1970s, first as … IBM’s own Personal Computer …(

a. IBM Archives: The birth of the IBM PC

b.Timeline of Computer History: 1981 | Computer History Museum

c. Timeline of Computer History: 1981 | Computer History Museum

539- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1984 AD…STRING THEORY… becomes “respectable” in physics…String theory emerged in the late 1960s as a candidate for..

a. History of string theory – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The First Revolution | Why String Theory

c. The Early Years of String Theory – Aspen Center for Physics

540- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1989 AD… DISINTEGRATION OF THE SOVIET UNION…

a. The Collapse of the Soviet Union1989–1992 – Milestones – Office

b. Dissolution of the Soviet Union – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Fall of the Soviet Union – Cold War – HISTORY.com

541- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1990 AD…HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE… launched into orbit…Hubble Space Telescope’s launch in 1990 sped humanity to one of its greatest…

a. Hubble Site – The TelescopeHubble Essentials

b.About the Hubble Space Telescope | NASA

c. 10 Fascinating Facts About the Hubble Space Telescope – History in

542- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1995 AD…SIXTH QUARK… called “top,” discovered…There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom. … 

a. Top quark – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The sixth quark: Top marks – Nature

c. top quark | physics | Britannica.com

543- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1998 AD… DARK ENERGY PROPOSED…Dark energy was discovered in 1998 with this method by two international teams that included…

a. Dark energy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. dark energy | astronomy | Britannica.com

c. A ‘Speedy’ Discovery – Dark Energy – HETDEX

544- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2000 AD…HUMAN GENOME DECODED… initial rough draft of the human genome was available in June 2000 and by February …

a. Human Genome Sequencing – 3730xl, Ion Torrent, Illumina

b. Human Genome Project – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome : Article : Nature

545- EVENT… FIRST GULF WAR BUSH I…1990-1991…The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War…

a. Gulf WarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Persian Gulf War | 1990-1991 | Britannica.com

c. Highway of Death – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

546- AL-QAEDA..SEPTEMBER 11,2001…After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, alQaeda (or al-Qa’ida, pronounced al-KYE-da) surpassed the IRA, Hamas…

a. AlQaeda – Infoplease

b.AlQaida / AlQaeda (The Base) – GlobalSecurity.org

c. Who Is Bin Laden? – Al Qaeda | Hunting Bin Laden | FRONTLINE

547- .AFGHANISTAN. WAR USA  BUSH II…Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country’s strategic location along the Silk Road

a. Afghanistan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. President Bush announces military action in Afghanistan – Oct 07

c. War in Afghanistan (2001–14) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

548- IRAQ WAR BUSH II.. 2003-2011…Bush was allegedly floating the idea of painting a U‑2 spy plane in UN colors and letting it fly low ….

a. Iraq War | 2003-2011 | Britannica.com

b. Iraq War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. 2003 invasion of Iraq – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

549- EVENT..WHO IS ISIS?…The Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq  follows a distinctive variety of Islam whose beliefs about the path to the Day of …

a. ISIS: Everything you need to know about the group – CNN.com

b.What ISIS Really Wants – The Atlantic

c.What is ‘Islamic State’? – BBC News – BBC.com

d. Everything you need to know about ISIS | MSNBC

550- BARACK OBAMA: 1961AD-current…Barack Obama is the 44th and current President of the United States. This biography of Barack Obama provides detailed information…  …

a. Barack Obama Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. President Barack Obama | whitehouse.gov

c. Is the State of Hawaii Covering Up Birth Registration Fraud in the ..

551- SPECIAL TOPIC… HISTORY OF AFRICA…AFRO- AMERICANS…SCIENCE AND MUSIC…

a.History of AfricaYouTube

b.History of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Economic history of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Outline of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

e. Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa

f. AfricansContribution to Science: A Culture of Excellence

g. African Science in School Curriculum – African Studies Center

h. List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars – Wikipedia, the free

i. Some) of Africa’s Scientific Discoveries & Contributions | Believing

j. Africa’s contribution to science and technology | ¡Ya Basta! Media

k.African-American Contributions to Mathematics and Science

l .African Americans contribute much to the field of Science | African

m.List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars – Wikipedia, the free

n. Greatest Africans of All Times – Emeagwali

o. Famous Black Scientists – Biography.cop.

p.15 Famous Black Scientists in History – Famous Scientists

q. 10 Black Scientists You Should Know | HowStuffWorks

r. South African heroes of science – SA scientists and inventors

s. The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences.

u. Top 10 African Music You Can’t Stop Singing – Answers Africa

v. Afrobeats: The new sound of West Africa that’s going global – CNN

w. Top 10 Best Music Producer In Nigeria – GY

x.African American Music Evolution Timeline – YouTube

y.730 The Movie – YouTube

z.15-Yr-Old Kelvin Doe Wows M.I.T. – YouTube

552- SPECIAL TOPIC…2016…HOW DOES AN EMAIL SEVER WORK?…email server is a computer that serves as an electronic post office for email. ..

a. How your email server worksYouTube

b.How email worksYouTubec. Message transfer agent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

553-SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS HUMANISM?…

a.What Is Humanism – American Humanist Association

b.Exploring the Idea of Humanism – American Humanist Association

c.Humanism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.Humanism Intro Part 1 – ‘Humanism‘ Richard Dawkins YouTube

554- WHAT IS LOGIC?…

a.What is Logic? – Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript

b.Logic – By Branch / Doctrine – The Basics of Philosophy

c.What is logic and why do philosophers study it?

555- HOW TO REFORM THE STOCK MARKET…Make public traded corporations give back to the stock holders 75% of the profit each quarter…

a.Mixturism

b.Mixturism

c.Mixturism

556- WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING

a.What is Critical Thinking? – Definition, Skills & Meaning – Video

b.What is Critical Thinking – Critical Reading

c.Critical thinking – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. How to Write an A+ Research Paper – A Research Guide for Students

e. http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/

NOW THAT YOU HAVE FINISHED ALL OF THE LESSONS, SELECT A MAJOR  SUBJECT AND LEARN EVERYTHING FROM A TO Z ABOUT IT.

HERE ARE  EXAMPLES OF MAJOR SUBJECTS, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 589,570, 571, 572…

557-MAJOR SUBJECT: WHAT IS ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION?…This is a complete course…

a.What is Grammar? | English Club

b. Parts of Speech Table | English Club

c. What Is A Sentence? | English Club

d. What Is a Sentence? (grammar lesson) – Grammar Monster

e. Clauses and Phrases

f. SubjectVerb Agreement

g. PronounAntecedent Agreement

h. Pronoun Case

i. Verb Principal PartsYouTube

j. Principal Parts of a Verb – Definition and Examples

k. What Are Linking Verbs? (grammar lesson) – Grammar Monster

l. Linking VerbsYouTube

m. Auxiliary Verbs – English Grammar Online

n. Present tense with future meaning. Tense, tone, not grammatically

o. Adjectives and Adverbs | Grammar Rules

p. .Conjunctions – Capital Community College

q. .What Are the Fourteen Punctuation Marks in English Grammar?

r. The Sentence

s. What Is A Sentence? | English Club.

t.WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? A paragraph is a group of sentences that

u. Paragraphs – The Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill

v. The Composition: Antonio Skarmeta, Alfonso Ruano – Amazon.com

w.composition – Dictionary Definition : Vocabulary.com

x.The Composition by Antonio Skarmeta – Social Justice Literature for

y. English Composition I – Duke University | Coursera

z.english composition 1 – YouTube

A. Sentence Sense – Scholastic

B. Fragments and Run-on – The Writing Center

C. Recognizing Comma Splices And Fused Sentences – Grammar Bytes!

D. Use unity in a sentence | unity sentence examples

E.Paragraph – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

F. How To Write A Whole Composition – Trinity College of the Bible and

G. How to Write a Composition: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

H. How to Write an A+ Research Paper – A Research Guide for Students

I. How To Write A Research Paper Fast – YouTube

J.The A+ Paper: Writing Stronger Papers Using a 3-Point Thesis

K, The FiveParagraph Essay – Capital Community College

L. Fiveparagraph essay – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

M. Purdue OWL: Creating a Thesis Statement

N.Writing a Thesis and Making an Argument | Department of History

O. How To Write A Dissertation – Computer Science

P.Dissertations – The Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill

Q.The most important part of writing a great headline – Crew blog

R. 10 Article Headline Examples That Got Us 10,000,000 Readers

S. The Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Powerful Headlines – Neil Patel

T. Ernest Hemingway’s Top 5 Tips for Writing Well – Copyblogger

U. Six Tips on Writing from John Steinbeck – Brain Pickings

V. John Steinbeck: Advice for Beginning Writers

X. Shakespeare’s skill was in his grammar not his language, academic

Y. English Grammar LessonsNiharikaYouTube

Z. 12 Timeless Writing Tips from Mark Twain – Online Universities

a. http://rhetoric.byu.edu/

INSTRUCTIONS: This is the real world; you can use any and all information from all sources to answer the questions. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1-What is English Grammar?

2-Name the eight parts of speech.

3- Define a sentence, write a simple sentence, a compound sentence and a complex sentence.

4- Define a clause and a phrase and write a sentence using each.

5-Explain what is meant by subject verb agreement.

6-What is meant by pronoun and antecedent agreement?

7- what is pronoun case?

8-What are the principal parts of a verb?

9-What are auxiliary verbs?

10- conjugate a verb.

11-Define an adjective and an adverb.

12- What are conjunctions?

13-What are the fourteen punctuation marks in English Grammar?

14-Write a sentence using each of the fourteen punctuation marks

15-Define a paragraph and write one.

16-What is sentence sense?

17- What is a comma splice? Write a sentence using a comma splice.

18-What is meant by sentence unity? Write a sentence showing unity.

19- What are fragments and run-on?

20-What is a composition?

21-Write a whole composition.

22- Define a research paper.

23- Define a thesis.

24-Define a dissertation.

25- What have we missed that you would have included? Point out any mistakes you have found. Email your answers to the following questions:

558-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PHYSICS?..   Check these two links: What is Physics – Department of Physics – NTNU  and What is Physics? – YouTube

a. Kinetic and Potential EnergyDifference and Comparison | Diffen

b. What is difference between potential and kinetic energy? – YouTube

c.Top 5 Examples of Alternative Energy Resources – Green Uptown

d. What is Energy – Types of Energy -www.makemegenius YouTube

e Work (physics) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

f. Energy, Work and PowerYouTube

g. What is the difference between reflection and refraction? – Ask.com

h. Inverse Square Law – HyperPhysics

i.Inverse Square Law Explained – YouTube

j. Newton’s Three Laws

k. Newton’s 3 (three) Laws of Motion – YouTube

l. Nuclear Reactions – Chemwiki

m .Nuclear ReactionsYouTube

n. What Types of Radiation Are There? – Health Physics Society

o. The Decreasing Speed of Light – Dr. Barry Setterfield – YouTube

p. Waves Review with Answers #1 – The Physics Classroom

q. Types of Waves | Science Primer

r List of Solar System objects – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

u .Planets in our solar system | Sun and solar system | Solar YouTubev. 

w. Sound waves

x. Theory of relativity – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

y. Einstein’s Theory Of Relativity Made Easy – YouTu

z.Temperature Scales

A. List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass

B. Why do we have leap year? – Ask History

C. Electrical curriculum: watts, ohms, volts, and amps

D.Amps, volts, watts explained…SEE what it really is all about. – YouTube

F.Big Bang Theory: Evolution of Our Universe – Universe Today

G.The Beginning of EverythingThe Big BangYouTube

H. The Moon And Tides

I. The Moon TidesYouTube

J.Simple machine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

K.Mechanical advantage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

L.Bill Nye and Mechanical AdvantageYouTube

M. What is the formula for pressure? | eNotes

N. What is Friction? | Friction Definition – LiveScience

O.What is the physical difference between a star and a planet

P.Entropy: The Ultimate and Most Pervasive Law of Nature

Q. The Three Laws of Thermodynamics – Boundless

R. EINSTEIN’S HAMMOCK: THERE’S NO SUCH THING AS “COLD

S. Conductors, Insulators, and Electron Flow : Basic Concepts Of

T.Electromagnetic Waves – different waves, different wavelengths

U. Electromagnetic spectrum – Types of electromagnetic waves compared

V. Is The Speed of Light Everywhere the Same? – Ucr

W. Why do leaves appear green? – Ask.com  AND Chemical of the Week — The  AND Chemistry of Autumn Colors

X. What is the Difference Between Evaporation and Condensation?

Y. Frequency of a Sound Wave – avatar.com.au

Z.Wavelength – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

a. Pressure – HyperPhysics

b. What’s the difference between a solar and lunar eclipse? – YouTube… and Lunar Eclipse vs Solar Eclipse – Moon

c.Absolute zero – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. What is a light year? | Space | EarthSky

e.What makes the stars appear to move from east to west across the

f.How Far Away Is The Nearest StarMoon Facts – Information About How Far is the Moon From the Sun? – Universe Today

g.Work, Energy and Power – HyperPhysics

h.Johannes Kepler | German astronomer | Britannica.com

i.Why Do Astronauts Float Around in Space? | WIRED

.INSTRUCTIONS: This is the real world; you can use any and all information from all sources to answer the following questions:. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1) What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy? Give situational examples and the mathematical formulas for each.
2) Define energy and give at least 5 examples. .
3) Define and express the formula for work.
4) Explain the difference between refraction and reflection of light.
5) Explain the inverse square law and how is the force of gravity and the propagation of light affected by it?
6) Express Newton’s three laws of motion.
7) There are two types of nuclear reactions. What are they and how are they different?
8) Radioactive substances may emit 5 types of particles and or waves. Name them.
9) Describe the five waves/particles you named in answer to the previous question.
10) Name 5 different types of objects that comprise the solar system.
11) A sound wave includes a high pressure component called ____________and a low pressure component called _______________.
12) There are two divisions of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Name them and briefly explain the difference.
13) What are the 3 temperature scales and what is the freezing point of water on each scale?
14) The atom is comprised of 3 basic particles. Name them and give the location, electrical charge and relative mass of each.
15) Explain why it is necessary to add one day to the year every four years?
16) What is the difference between a volt, a watt, an amp and an ohm?
17) What is the Big Bang?
18) What does the moon have to with the Tides?
19) Name two simple machines.
20) Explain mechanical advantage.
21) Define pressure in a mathematical formula.
22) What is friction? Explain how it can be a good thing and a not-so-a-thing.
23) What is the basic difference between a star and a planet?
24) What is entropy? Is it inevitable? Why or why not?
25) Explain why there is no such thing as “cold”.
26) The flow of electrons down a conductor is a ______________.
27) List 6 kinds of electromagnetic waves.
28) True or false. The speed of light is constant. What’s it value?
29) Why does a leaf appears green?
30) What is the difference between evaporation and condensation?
31) What is meant by the frequency and the wavelength of a sound wave and a light wave.
32) Define pressure in terms of an equation.
33) Explain the difference between a lunar and a solar eclipse.
34) What is meant by absolute zero?
35)  What is a light year?
36) Celestial bodies appear to move from east to west because….
37) What is the distance to the moon, the sun, the nearest star?
38) Define power in terms of its relationship to work.
39) What was Kepler’s contribution.
40) Astronauts on the Space Station are seen to float in the cabin, yet they are still within the earth’s gravitational field. Explain how this is possible.
559- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS MATHEMATICS?…WHAT IS ARITHMETIC?…WHAT IS GEOMETER?…WHAT IS TRIGONOMETRY? …WHAT IS ANALYTICAL GEOMETER?…WHAT IS ALGEBRA?…WHAT IS CALCULUS?…WHAT IS THEORY OF EQUATIONS?…

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1) Write symbols for multiplication, addition, subtraction, division, square root and integration.

2) Reliance on calculators for basic math operations since the 80’s has caused many to ignore the memorization of times tables. However, committing the tables through 12 is a requirement.

3) Solving the square root of a number involves find what?

4) Squaring a number requires you to _________________.

5) What is an integer?

6) What is an improper fraction?

7) Define percentage.

8) Differentiate even numbers from odd numbers.

9) How would you convert a fraction like 7/8 to a decimal and a percentage?

10) How would you convert 75 percent to a fraction?

11)  If a sale item is 25 % off and the regular price is $36, what is the sale price?

12) What is the amount of interest on a $1,000 loan if the rate is 5.5%?

13) Suppose you have $2,500 in a checking account. You make a deposit of $750 on 6/12, write a check on 6/22 for $3,000 and another on 6/25 for $275. Are you overdrawn?

14) Your property taxes went up 15 percent. Before the increase they were $1,200. What are they after the increase?

15) Explain how to find the area of a room. Illustrate with a problem.

16) Your car gets 28 miles per gallon. How far can you go on 9.8 gallons?

17) To four decimal places, what is the value of Pi?

18) Define Pi in words.

19) If a cube is 10 cm long, 8 cm wide and 9 cm deep, what is its volume in the correct units?

20) What’s the formula for the area of a circle?

21) What is the Pythagorean Theorem? Express it as a formula.

22) What are the units for length, mass and volume in the metric system?

23) Give the value of the following prefixes: nano, micro, Milli, centi, deci, deca, he to, kilo, mega, Giga.

24) A kilometer equals what decimal equivalent of a mile?

25) Define a rational number.

26) _____________are superscripts that indicate the power to which a number must be raised.

27) What is scientific notation? Write 3,330,500 as scientific notation.

28) Name 3 kinds of graphs.

29) How are averages found? What is the average of this set of numbers? 55, 67, 98, 44, and 37?

30) Define probability. What’s the probability that an event will occur, if the event takes place 60 times put of 300?

31) Algebraic equations allow for the solution of an unknown. Suppose 22x = 66. Solve for

32) Define geometry. Who was Euclid and what was his contribution to mathematics?

33) Define Trigonometry.

34) Define sin, tangent, cosine, secant.

35) Define calculus.

36) Calculus is divided into two categories_________________& ___________________.

37) Who invented calculus?

38) Define Fibonacci numbers.

39) The square root of a negative number is ______________.

40) Multiplying two negative numbers together produces a ______________number.

 

560-WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?… is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances …

a.What Is Chemistry? – Live ience

b.What Is Chemistry? – Definition – About.com

c.General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Introduction: What is chemistry?

d. Atoms, Molecules, Elements and Compounds

e. What is the difference between atoms and elements? – Science ..

f. .What are the differences between mixtures and compounds? | eNotes

g. What are the basic building blocks of matter? – Ask.com

h. Properties of Subatomic Particles (protons, neutrons and electrons)

i. History of the periodic table – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

j. Science periodic table on Pinterest | Periodic Table, Atoms and

k. Periodic Table of Elements and Chemistry

l. Difference Between Atomic Mass and Mass Number – Chemistry

m. Chemical Formulas – Washington University in St. Louis

n. Full text of “Practical chemistry” – Internet Archive

o. What is the difference between chemical and physical change?

p. Differences Between Chemical Changes: Endothermic & Exothermic

q. Matter – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

r. The Atom: Protons, Neutrons, Electrons – Science – Knoji

s. Chemistry Tutorial : Elements and Compounds – AUS-e-TUTE

t. What is an isotope? – Antoine

u. As an atom becomes an ion, what happens to its mass number

v.What Is the Difference Between Organic and Inorganic? – Chemistry

w.Organic compound – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

x.What is the difference between organic and inorganic substances?

y.Organic and inorganic Substances – presentations

z.Explain the difference between organic and inorganic compounds

a. Difference Between an Ionic and Covalent Chemical Bond – Chemistry

b. General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Acids and bases: What is pH?

c. pH – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. What is a Salt Dome? How do they form? – Geology.com

e.Noble gases Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

f.Allotropy – New World Encyclopedia

g.Atmosphere of Earth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

h.What Is Combustion – YouTube

i. Combustion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

j. Combustion – Space Flight Systems – Nasa

k.Molecules in Motion | Chapter 1: Matter—Solids, Liquids, and Gases

l.Changes of Phase, Heat, Temperature | Zona Land Education

m.What is antifreeze? | 200 Questions About Chemistry

n.Basic concepts: polar and nonpolar molecules. – Adventures in

o.Water as the Universal Solvent | Earth 540: Essentials of

p.What is solubility? Why do some things dissolve and some not?

q.Moving Molecules in a Solid | Chapter 1: Matter—Solids, Liquids

r.Moving Molecules in a Solid | Chapter 1: Matter—Solids, Liquids

s.Why does water bead up on the surface of a wax-polished car?

t.Why don’t oil and water mix? – John Pollard – YouTube

u.Three States of Matter – Boundless

v.What are the differences between ionic, covalent, and hydrogen

w.An atom consists of 12 neutrons and 11 protons. What is the atomic

x.mole | chemistry | Britannica.com

y.Avogadro constant – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

z.An Exact Value for Avogadro’s Number » American Scientist

Chemistry is a branch of science dealing with matter, its composition, its structure and the changes it undergoes during physical and chemical reactions or interactions.

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1) Define an element and a molecule and explain the difference.

2) How does a compound differ from a mixture?

3)  What is the basic building block of matter?

4) Give the location, charge and relative mass of a proton, neutron and electron.

5) Who formulated the modern periodic table of the elements.

6) Explain the difference between the atomic number and the atomic weight.

7) What information does a chemical formula give you?

8) Give the chemical formulas for these 8 common substances…water, carbon dioxide, sugar, salt, carbon monoxide, oxygen, sand, drinking alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and Rust.

9)  what is the difference between a chemical change and a physical change?

10)  Differentiate between an exothermic and an endothermic reaction.

11) Define matter.

12) What comprises the nucleus of an atom?

13) What are the chemical symbols for the following common elements: hydrogen, sodium, lead, carbon, aluminum, iron, gold, silver, Mercury, helium, chlorine, potassium and uranium.

14) What is an isotope?

15)  An atom becomes an ion as a result of what occurrence?

16) What distinguishes an organic compound from other compounds?

17) What is the difference between an ionic and a covalent compound and give an example of each.

18) What is pH?

19) What is the pH of water…of an acid…of an alkaline solution?

20) A salt is typically a _____________united with a _____________.

21) Name 3 inert gases. Why are they call this and what is another name for them?

22) Define allotrope and give an example.

23) Ninety nine percent of the earth’s atmosphere is composed of these two gases. Name them. Give the percentages of these gases.

24) What is combustion?

25) When a substance burns in air, what gases are normally released.

26) If combustion taking place in air is incomplete, what gas is released?

27) When elements combine in a chemical reaction, electrons are either ____________or ____________.

29) How is the movement of molecules affected when the substance is cooled?

30) When a material melts, it is said to undergo a _____________change.

31) Anti-freeze works by _______________the ________________point of water.

32) What are the characteristics of a polar and a non-polar molecule and two examples of each.

33) Why is water called the universal solvent?

34) When one substance dissolves in another, it is said to be ___________in that substance.

35) The application of heat causes the atoms of most substances move faster and spread apart. Thus the material________________.

36) Why does water bead up on a waxed surface?

37) Why don’t water and oil mix?

38) Describe the difference between physical properties and chemical properties.

39) What are the 3 states of matter?

40) What’s  the difference between an ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds?

41)  if an atom of an element contains 12 protons and 11 neutrons its atomic mass is________________.

42) If atom loses 3 electrons, it will have a _______________electrical charge.

43) Define the mole.

44) What is Avogadro’s number?

561- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS BIOLOGY?…Biology is the science of life. Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin , evolution and distribution of living organisms…The cell is the basic unit of life, genes, composed of DNA are the units of heredity and evolution is the mechanism by which new species are created.
INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1) What is protoplasm?

2)  What is the control center of the cell is called?

3) What are similar cells comprise of?

4) Similar _____________make up an organ.

5) Sub-cellular bodies within the cells are______________. Name one.

6) Name 4 characteristics of living organisms.

7) What is an autotroph and a heterotroph and give an example of each.

8) The largest taxonomic classification of living entities is what?

9) The process by which life appeared in the primordial soup from chemicals in the seas billions of years ago is called _________________.

10) What is metabolism?

11) The process by which plants capture energy from the sun is called ______________.

12) Animals break down __________________to obtain energy to sustain functions.

13) Animals breathe in _____________ and release _________________.

14) Plants take in the gas _____________ and release ________________.

15) In the evolutionary scheme, reptiles gave rise to ______________.

16) True or false, monkeys were the ancestors of modern man.

17) The green pigment in plants is _______________.

18) The area in which an animal lives is its ________________.

19) The well-know acronym, DNA, stands for _________________.

20) DNA’s chief function is to carry out _____________.

21) Explain the difference between viruses and bacteria.

22) Which one of the above is treated with antibiotics?

23) List 4 traits of mammals and name 4 mammals.

24) Explain why a whale is NOT a fish.

25) A butterflies belong to what class?

26) To which genus and species do humans belong.

27) What is the largest organ in the human body?

28) What is a nerve cell called?

29) What is the iron-containing pigment in the blood called?

30) Excess energy is stored in the body as _________________.

31) Food energy is measured in units called __________ and an adult man requires about  how many per day?

32) Excretory organs are the _______________.

33) Explain why sharks are not true fish.

34) The light sensitive layer at the rear of the eyeball is the _____________ and the two types of receptors are _____________& ______________.

35) Name the four chambers of the heart.

36) Why are elevated levels of cholesterol unhealthy?

37) What are the two blood pressure readings called? What is the average reading?

38) Explain why viruses are considered to be on the boundary between living and non-living.

39) The membrane that allows the exchange of  gases and nutrients between the mother and the fetus is the ____________.

40) Humans shared 98% of our DNA with with animal?

562-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?…Psychology is the study of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of human experience. It is an academic discipline and an applied science which seeks to …

a.What is Psychology? | Simply Psychology

b.What Is Psychology? – About.com

c.BBC Science | Human Body & Mind | What is Psychology?

d. Sigmund Freud – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

e. Alfred Adler: Short Biography and Explanation of Theories

f. Carl Jung – Psychology History

g. Psyche (psychology) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

h.expert – Dictionary Definition : Vocabulary.com

i. Clinical Psychology – A Guide to Psychology and its Practice

k. Essentials of the US Health Care System Ed 3 flashcards | Quizlet

l. Human Resources: What Is Human Performance Technology?

m. Mental health professional – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

n. A Quick History of Philosophy – General – The Basics of Philosophy

o. Greek PhilosophyAncient History Encyclopedia

p. Black psychology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

q.  History of Mental Illness | Noba

r. History of neuroscience – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

s.Brain frontal lobes not sole center of human intelligence

t.From Psychology to Parapsychology | Psychology Today

u.Parapsychology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

w.The Psychology of the “Psychology Isn’t a Science” Argument

x.Neuropsychologist | Definition and Patient Education – Healthline

y.What Does a Neuropsychologist Do, Exactly? – BrainLine.org

z.Pierre-Paul BrocaPsychology History

a. Race (human categorization) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Personnel Duties and Responsibilities – Crime Scene Investigator

c.Famous Psychologists – Ivan PavlovPsychologist Anywhere Anytime

d. Ivan Pavlov – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

e. Phobias – Mayo Clinic

f. Phobia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

g.Cognitive Psychology: The Science of How We Think

h.Cognitive psychology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

i.3 Cognitive Biases | Measuring Human Capabilities: An Agenda for

j.The Art and Craft of Psychoanalytic Practice: A Discussion of

k.Psychoanalytic Feminism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

l.Jungian archetypes – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

m.Unconscious Mind | Simply Psychology

n.Unconscious mind – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

o.Freudian slip – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Four Fs (evolution) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

r.The 7 Driving Forces Behind Human Motivation | Addicted 2 Success

s.Behavioral Therapy – #1 Webite for Online Therapy – betterhelp.com

t.Ink blot test – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

u.What Does IQ Really Measure? | Science | AAAS

v.Schizophrenia – Mayo Clinic

w.Anxiety Disorders: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

x.ParanoiaWhat Is Paranoia – Signs of ParanoiWhat are the common signs of paranoia? 

y. Mind, the mental health …

z.A-Z Mental health | Mind, the mental health charity – help for mental

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1. The word “psychology” is derived from what Greek words. What is the meaning of each root?

2. In 1694, the word psychology was first used by whom in The Physical Anatomy Dictionary?

3. Broadly speaking, psychology is the study of what two aspects of the human experience?

4. One who practices psychology is called by what title?

5. Practitioners are categorized into what 3 major groups?

6. Practitioners delve into many areas of the human experience. Name 6 of these areas.

7.  Many practitioners in their therapeutic efforts, act as this type of health professional.

8. Name 3 ancient civilizations that pursued psychology from a philosophical perspective.

9. What Ancient Greek physician stated that mental disorders were the result of physical and not supernatural causes?

10. What ancient civilization concluded that the brain was the center of intelligence and sensation?

11. Explain the difference between psychology and Parapsychology.

12. Give two subtopics of parapsychology.

13. Why have some asserted that psychology is not a “hard science”, like chemistry and physics.

14. What does a neuropsychologist do?

15. What was Paul Broca’s important contribution to psychology?

16. Who classified humans into four behavioral groups based on ethnicity?

17. Name the four groups and give this investigators description of each.

18. What was Pavlov’s contribution to psychology?

19. Describe his experiment.

20. Define phobia.

21. What is cognitive psychology?

22. Name four areas that cognitive psychology is concerned with.

23. Cognitive bias is analogous to what?

24. What is confirmation bias?

25. How does a psychoanalyst practice his craft?

26. Who was the arguably the most pre-emanate psychoanalyst?

27.  What two methods is the above person noted for?

28. What early Swiss psychiatrist promoted and expanded the theory of collective unconsciousness?

27. What approach emphasizes a person’s basic drive towards self-actulaization?

28. Freud believed that personality was based on the interplay of what three facets of the mind?

29. Briefly describe each of the three.

30. What is the unconscious mind?

31. What is a “Freudian slip”?

32. Name 5 basic drives of animals and humans.

33. What does CBT stand for?

34. What is the the test which employs ink blots?

35. What is IQ a measure of?

36. Typically, a psychiatrist will use what two modalities to improve a patient’s mental state.

37. Define schizophrenia.

38. What is anxiety?

39. What is paranoia?

563- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?…the study of society; a social science involving the study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies…

a.What is Sociology? | Department of Sociology

b. American Sociological Association: What is Sociology?

c. An Introduction to Sociology – American Sociological Association

 

564- A MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS HISTORY?…is a study of historiography that was written by the English historian E. H. Carr…Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. —George Santayana. History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning “inquiry, knowledge …World history is a subject that embraces all humanity, not just certain nations, ethnic groups, or civilizations. Why should schools ask teachers and students to investigate a subject that encompasses the whole world and its peoples? World History for Us All emphasizes three rationales for investigating the human past.

a. The History Guide — What is History?

b.History in Focus: What is History? – Institute of Historical Research

c.What is HistoryYouTube

d. What Is History? – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

e.World history – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

f.World History for Us All: Why Learn World History?

g. What is World History? – The World History Association (WHA)

h.World HistoryYouTube

j.A Short History of the World (H. G. Wells) – Wikipedia, the free

k.The Outline of History – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

l. American History 100 Facts – Gilmer ISD Home Page

m.12 Simple American History Questions All Patriots Should Be Able ..

n.American History Quiz (easy) – ProProfs Quiz

o.Can You Answer 8th-Grade US History and Government Questions?

p.100 Civics Questions and Answers with MP3 Audio (English version

q.Can You Answer The 21 Questions That Every American Should

r.US History: 1865 to Present – YouTube

s.The real History of the United States Of AmericaYouTube

t.History of AmericaAmerican Revolution – World YouTube

u.History of Colonial America 1497 – 1763 – YouTube

v.History of the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

w.Timeline of United States historyWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

x.National Museum of American HistoryWikipedia, the free

y.African-American historyWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

z.Colonial history of the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

565- MAJOR SUBJECT…SALESPERSONSHIP, ADVERTISING AND MARKETING..NOTHING EVER HAPPENS UNTIL SOMETHING IS SOLD…TO BE SUCCESSFUL YOU HAVE TO SELL YOURSELF…

a. Cricket: Gun Salesperson of the Year – YouTube

b. salespersonship – Wiktionary

c. 8 Rules for Successful Selling – Business Know-How

d. The 5 Great Rules of Selling: The Revised and Enlarged Edition

e.Dale Carnegie Free eBook – How To Win Friends Influence People

 

566 MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?…Geography is the study of Earth’s landscapes, peoples, places and environments…

a.What is geography? – Royal Geographical Society

b.What is Geography? – National Geographic Education

c.What is Geography? – Definition, Facts & Types – Video & Lesson

 

567- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS COMPUTER SCIENCE?…Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scaleComputer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, …

1. What is 8bit? – Computer Hope

2. .8bit, 32-bit, 64-bit Processors? | Physics Forums – The Fusion of

3 .Eight bit transistor computer – YouTube

4.What do you mean by 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit microprocessor? – Quora

5. computer chip | electronics | Britannica.com

6.CHIP – The World’s First Nine Dollar ComputerYouTube

7.How do they make Silicon Wafers and Computer Chips? – YouTube

8.What is a Transistor? – LiveScience

9.How Does a Transistor Work? – YouTube

10.What Is Nanotechnology? – chemicalsafetyfacts.org

11.What is a Search Engine? Webopedia Definition

12.What is Nanotechnology. This Video Will Blow Your Mind – YouTube

13.What is Nanotechnology | Introduction to YouTube

14. What is silicon chip? – Computer Hope

15. How do they make Silicon Wafers and Computer Chips? – YouTube

16. .What is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)? – Definition from

17..HTML – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

18. .Introduction to HTML Programming – YouTube

19.Keyboard Symbols | Computer *** – Signs & Symbols

20..List of mathematical symbols – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

21. What is a Mail Server and How Does it Work? (Article) – SamLogic

22..How your email server works – YouTube

24. How Does the Internet Work ? – YouTube

25. Who invented the internet? – Ask Histor

26..ARPAnet – the team behind the internet – YouTube

27..What is ARPANET? – Computer Hope28. Lets Build – 8 Bit Computer Part 1 Introduction – YouTube

29. .What Are Logarithms? – LiveScience

30. .What Are Logarithms? – LiveScience

31. Logarithms, Explained – Steve Kelly – YouTube

32. .Base Ten Definition – Mathematics – About.com

33.  Base 10 Number System – YouTube

33. .Binary number – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

34. Base 10 to Base 2 (Decimal to Binary) Conversion – YouTube

35. Base 2 and Base 10 Number Systems Part 1 – YouTube

36. .Introduction to base 2 system – YouTube

37. Computer scienceWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

38.History of computer scienceWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

39.Portal:Computer scienceWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

40.ComputerWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

41 Computer science – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

42.Theoretical computer scienceWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

43.Information and Computer ScienceWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

44. Lec 1 | MIT 6.00 Introduction to Computer Science and YouTube

45 Lecture 0 – Introduction to Computer Science I – YouTube.

46. What is Computer Science? – YouTube

47.Computer Science a good major? – YouTub

48.Computer Science – Topic – YouTube

49. What is an algorithm and why should you care? | Intro to Algorithms

50.What is an algorithm and why should you care? – YouTube

51.AlgorithmWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

52.What is a computer algorithm? | HowStuffWorks

53..What is algorithm? – Definition from WhatIs.com

54. What is a Computer Algorithm? – Design, Examples & Optimization t.

55.What is an algorithm? – Microsoft Research

56.AlgorithmWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

57.What is an algorithm? definition and meaning

58.What are Wikis, and Why Should You Use Them? – Computer Skills

59.What every computer science major should know – Matt Might

60.Top 30 Computer Science and Programming Blogs 2014

61. What is Microsoft? – Definition from WhatIs.com

62. What is software? Webopedia Definition

63. How Does a Computer Program Work? – For Dummies

64. How does anti-virus software work? | AntivirusWorld

65. Computer SoftwareYouTube

65. DOWNLOAD youtube video { no softwear } – YouTube

66. YouTube Software – Download, Convert, Edit & Make YouTube Videos

67. What the Heck is an “App“? – Small Business Trends

68. Yahoo! Search – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

69. What is a driver? – Windows Help

70. What does it mean to defragment a hard disk? – PC.net

71. For Seniors: How to Install a New Computer Program – For Dummies

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

A. What is a an APP?

B. Explain the difference between a BYTE and a BIT.

C. The COMPUTER’s CHIP, is its “brains”, and is sometimes referred to as what? Hint: Initials are CPU.

D. What does a DRIVER do?

E. Most computers have EXPANSION SLOTS. What is their purpose?

F. When should you FRAGMENT your hard drive? What does this mean?

G. How many bytes are in a GIGABYTE?

H. What is stored on a computer’s HARD DRIVE?

I. Where would you find an ICON and what good is it to the user?

J. What sort of programs usually require a JOY STICK?

K. How many bytes are in a KILOBYTE?

L. To LOAD a program on to your computer is to do what?

M. RAM is a type of computer MEMORY. What does RAM stand for?

N. Bytes are moved from
The hard drive to RAM very quickly, in NANOSECONDS. What is a NANOSECOND?

O. Name two types of OPERATING SYSTEMS. How do they function in the computer?

P. What does the acronym PC stand for. PC’s compete with what other widely sold computer platform.
Q. QUICKTIME enables you to do what on a computer?

R. Explain what a router does.

S. What is the function of a SERVER?

T. Distinguish between SOFTWARE and the computer’s hardware.

U. What is a TROJAN HORSE?

V. An UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SOURCE a safe guard against what kind of problem?

W. Explain how a computer VIRUS is analogous to a biological virus.

X. In the 90’s, WINDOWS replaced what operating system  on IBM/PC machines?

Y. What is WI-FI?

Z. YAHOO is a search engine. Name another popular search engine.

 

568- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS BUSINESS?…A business, also known as an enterprise, agency or a firm, is an entity involved in the provision of goods and/or services to consumers… Businesses buy goods and services and sell them at a price to make a profit. Two talents are needed: you need to be a good salesperson and have a good working knowledge of arithmetic…Bushiness are different than governments: business buy and sell to make a profit, governments encompass all of humanity, they redistribute money so good and services can be directed where needed. Governments can not be run like a business that is why people who have made a lot of money buying and selling at a profit are not well educated enough to run governments.

a.What is a business? definition and meaning – BusinessDictionary.com

b.What is salesperson? definition and meaning

c.

d.

e.

f.

569-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS EDUCATION?…Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. 

a. What is education? definition and meaning – Business Dictionary.com

b. Education – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.What is education? – YouTube

d.

e.

f.

570-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ECONOMICS?…Economics is the social science that describes the factors that determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. 

a.What is Economics? A Definition of Economic

b.What is Economics? – YouTube

c.EconomicsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.

 

571-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ASTRONOMY?…astronomy is the study of the sun, moon, stars, planets and other objects and phenomena in space. It has a long, rich history...

a.What are Science and Astronomy

b Astronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.  Astronomy – Introduction and History of the Study of Stars

e. List of Solar System objects – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

f. How do you measure the distance between Earth and the Sun

g. How Long is a LightYear? – Nasa

h .How Far is a Lightyear? – YouTub

i.Why is Venus sometimes called Earth’s twin? – Cool Cosmos

j.Apollo 11 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

k.The EarthTwin Planet That Nobody Talks About – Out There

l.1 Strange Facts You Didn’t Know About the First Moon Landing

m.Apollo 11 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

n.Closest Star to the Sun – Universe Today

o.How long would it take to get to Alpha Centauri? | Science Wire

p.Moon Compared to Earth – Universe Today

q.10 Incredible Facts About The MoonYouTube

r.How Does The Sun Produce Energy? – Universe Today

s.Image of 1 million Earths inside the Sun – Business Insider

t.How Big is the Sun? 1.3 Million Earths Visualised – Space Facts

u.Why stars twinkle, but planets don’t | Science Wire | EarthSky

v.Can the universe be described in simple English? | British Council

w.Describing the Universe

x.The Universe Explained in Under 3 Minutes – YouTube

y.Orbit of the Moon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

z.The Moon’s orbit around EarthYouTube

a. Age of the universe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Carl Sagan’s COSMOSYouTube

c. How Old Is The Earth? – Universe Today

d.History of supernova observation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

e.Supernova 1054 – Creation of the Crab Nebula

f.What Is A Supernova? – YouTube

g.What Is The Milky Way? – YouTube

h.10 Facts About the Milky Way – Universe TodayUniverse Today

i.Scientists measure most distant galaxy yet | Science Wire | EarthSky

j.Binary Star Systems: Classification and Evolution – Space.com

k.What Is Microgravity? | NASA

l.Science Explained: How Can the Diameter of the Universe Exceed

m.What is meant by the theory that the sun is a third generation star?

n.Colonization of Venus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

o.Inverse-square law – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

p.Meteor | Meteoroid | Fireball | Meteorite | GEOLOGY.COM

q.Space: SETI: What is SETI? – Active Mind

r.Redshift – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

s.Red Shift ExplainedYouTube

t.Red Shift and Doppler Effect – YouTube

u.Hubble finds proof that the universe is expanding – PBS

v.The Big Bang theory. Dark Matter and the Expanding Universe

w.Stephen Hawking – The Expanding UniverseYouTube

x.title – Why was The Big Bang Theory given that name? – Movies & TV

y.Name of the Universe | Actforlibraries.org

z.Prosaic | Definition of Prosaic by Merriam-Webster

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW, WRITE AN ESSAY ON EACH, AND EMAIL THEM TO DUOA.

1. List five different kinds of objects that make up the solar system.

2. How far is the sun from the earth?

3. What is a light year? How many miles in one?

4. Which planet is known as earth’s twin?

5. In what year did humans step onto the moon?

6. What is the star, besides the sun, closest to the earth? How far away is it?

7. Compare the size of the moon to that of the earth.

8. The sun produces energy by what nuclear process?

9. How many earths would fit inside the sun?

10. Explain why stars twinkle but planets don’t.

11. What is the name of the galaxy nearest earth and how far away is it?

12. What IS a galaxy?

13. Explain the difference between a solar and a lunar eclipse.

14. What is a sidereal day?

15. What makes it necessary to add one day every four years…leap year?

16. What happens at the vernal and and autumn equinox?

17. What is the largest planet in the solar system?

18. What caused craters on the moon and why do we have so few of them on earth?

19. Explain what causes the ocean tides?

20. As the earth orbits the sun, why doesn’t it fly off into space?

21. How would you describe the universe?

22. How long does it take the moon to orbit the earth?

23. Explain what causes the moon’s phases.

24. What is the age of the cosmos?

25. How old is the earth?

26. What is a super nova? What of astronomical significance happened in 1054 AD?

27. Stars convert which element to what other element to produce energy?

28. What is the Milky Way?

29. What are the brightest and most distant objects in the universe?

30. What is an eclipsing binary?

31. How is it possible that the astronauts in the space station are weightless, given that they are only 250 miles above the earth and NOT outside the earth’s gravity?

32. What is the diameter of the “visible universe”?

33. The sun is said to be a second or third generation star. What is meant by that?

34. What makes the planet Venus so uninhabitable?

35. How do the force of gravity, as well as light and radiation, decrease with the distance from the source?

36. What causes a meteor to glow brightly when it enters the earth’s atmosphere?

37. What is SETI?

38. Explain what “red shift” is.

39. Who discovered that the universe is expanding.

40. What is the prosaic name given to the beginning of the universe?

 

572- MAJOR SUBJECT… GEOLOGY…The combination of continents, oceans, and atmosphere makes Earth unique ..

a.How the Earth works (as seen from space) – All parts – YouTube

b.Gaia hypothesis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Spark Notes: The Good Earth: Themes, Motifs & Symbol

NOW THAT YOU HAVE FINISHED YOUR MAJOR, YOU WILL BE GETTING YOUR DEGREE IN THE MAIL IN A FEW DAYS.

THE PERSON WHOSE NAME IS ON A COLLEGE DEGREE FROM DIGITAL UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA, who has finished the Course of Study, KNOWS A LOT ABOUT EVERYTHING FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE TO THE PRESENT AND KNOWS MUCH MORE FROM A TO Z  ABOUT THEIR MAJOR SUBJECT. 

digital University Certificate

Digital University of America accepts courses from all Colleges and Universities in your major subject, but you have to finish the Course of Study to get a Degree from Digital University of America. Digital University of America ‘s Course of Study may or may not be accepted by other Colleges and Universities.

COPYRIGHT 2015 by JAMES M. CARROLL and DIGITAL UNIVERSITY of AMERICA…ALL RIGHTS RESERVED…This Web Site may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without permission.

internetfreepress.com. 

Mixturism

3 steps to Success

Why We Dream

The Problem With Public Education

Words Every Good Reader Knows

Born out of the sun 2014

Mixturism

3 steps to Success

Why We Dream

The Problem With Public Educa

 

GET AN EDUCATION AND A COLLEGE DEGREE ABSOLUTELY FREE

                   REGISTER NOW. SEE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW MAP.
                 
NOW THROUGH THIS WEBSITE, YOU CAN GET AN EDUCATION AND A  COLLEGE DEGREE ABSOLUTELY FREE. NO PURCHASES OF ANY KIND ARE REQUIRED. THE COST TO YOU IS ZERO.
THIS WEBSITE IS SUPPORTED BY CONTRIBUTIONS  FROM PEOPLE  WHO BELIEVE THAT EDUCATION IS THE GREATEST PART OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE– AND THAT ANY PERSON WILLING TO DO THE HARD WORK TO GET AN EDUCATION SHOULD NOT HAVE TO GO IN DEBT; AND THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN THE GOLDEN RULE AND WANT TO LEAVE THE WORLD A BETTER PLACE THAN THEY FOUND IT.

digitalzzz                 Copyright 2015 by Digital University of America…

THERE ARE NO PREREQUISITES. You don’t have to be eighteen. You don’t have to have a high school diploma. WHAT IS REQUIRED is that you have a computer, Internet access, a legal name, address and an ID number to be issued when you register. You must be able to read English and should posses a GENUINE DESIRE to get an education.

If you do not have a computer, the public library will let you use theirs.

If you already have a College Degree, you can get a Master’s Degree by following the Course of Study and doing a Master’s Thesis. If you have a Master’s Degree, you can get a Doctor of Philosophy by following the Course of Study and doing a Doctoral  Dissertation.

In order to earn credit, you must follow the instructions as they pertain to all lessons, completing the reading and video assignments, and compose a one page essay  on each lesson based on your own ideas and ideas of others. You will not be bogged down by having to remember Dates, Facts, and Figures.There are no test to take. You will have a clear mind for learning.

You will follow a COURSE of STUDY that will take you on a CHRONOLOGICAL JOURNEY  from the inception of the Universe to the Present. This march through time will review the contribution of Great Individuals, their ideas and concepts, Great World Events, and Great Philosophical and Scientific Ideas – along with the impact these revelations and innovations had on civilization and are still having today.

According to Dr. Albert Edward Wiggam, if you wish to become an educated person– you will ask yourself the three questions below every day of your life. If you rigidly ask and answer them, they will come to your aid in solving every problem and become the background of your clearest and most effective thinking.

The ABC’s of Education:

A. DO I REALLY WANT TO KNOW THE TRUTH ABOUT POLITICS, BUSINESS, SCIENCE, RELIGION, MORALS, AND LIFE, OR DO I MERELY WANT TO PROVE THAT THE NOTIONS I ALREADY HAVE ABOUT THESE THINGS ARE CORRECT?

B. AM I WILLING TO LAY ASIDE THE CONVICTIONS OF A LIFE TIME AND ALL THE TRADITIONS AND BELIEFS OF HISTORY, AND ALL THE CUSTOMS OF MY SOCIAL CLASS WHEN I COME INTO THE PRESENCE OF A NEW FACT, LONG ENOUGH TO FIND OUT WHETHER OR NOT THIS NEW FACT OUGHT TO CHANGE MY POINT OF VIEW?

C. HAVE I EVER, WITHOUT MENTAL RESERVATION, PREJUDICE, BIAS, SET NOTIONS AND DOGMAS, SURRENDERED MY HEART AND MIND COMPLETELY TO THE EXAMINATION OF THE REASONS FOR MY MOST CHERISHED OPINIONS; THAT IS, HAVE I SURRENDERED MY HEART AND MIND COMPLETELY TO AN ACCEPTANCE OF THE TRUTH, WHEREVER IT LEADS ME?

The greatest part of any education is the ability to read. If you can read, the earth and everything that’s in it is yours on a gold platter.  You don’t need a teacher to learn about everything. Great people of the past were self-educated..This website makes it easy for you to get an education by linking you directly to the information on each lesson.

TO REGISTER: SEND NAME … FIRST, MIDDLE AND LAST NAME …ADDRESS…DATE OF BIRTH…EMAIL …PHONE NUMBER… AND A SMALL PHOTO OF YOURSELF TO: DIGITAL UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA…2201 SOUTHERN SHADE BLVD….KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE 37932…or you can email it to: DUOAFREE@GMAIL.COM

YOU WILL BE SENT YOUR STUDENT ID NUMBER AND AN EMAIL ADDRESS SO THAT YOU CAN SEND YOUR ESSAY TO  DIGITAL UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA  AFTER YOU FINISH EACH LESSON.

As you start your quest of an education, keep these questions in mind: why were these Great Events, Great Individuals, and Great Ideas important, what impact did they have on civilization and how do they reverberate with us today.

LESSONS ARE IN NUMERICAL ORDER;  GREAT EVENTS, GREAT INDIVIDUALS AND GREAT IDEAS ARE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.

  1. (Event 13 billion years ago) THE BEGINNING OF A NEW UNIVERSE… IN THE BEGINNING THEORY…In the beginning, a new Universe was born out of the same energy and matter that all Universes have been made out of before, and will be made out of in the future. All of the energy and matter in the Universe that exist have always existed, and will always exist. Space is infinite; it has no borders. Due to the curvature of space, about every 13 to 15 billion years, all the energy and matter in the Universe comes back together again and explodes in all directions from the center out going from zero to near the speed of light in less than one billionth of a second which starts a new universe all over again…                 INSTRUCTIONS:BELOW ARE SEVERAL LINKS YOU CAN CLICK ON AND READ ABOUT EACH LESSON; YOU CAN SEARCH THE INTERNET FOR OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION; THEN YOU CAN WRITE YOUR ESSAY. You are to write an essay on all of the lessons…about one page.

a-The Big Bang Theory Site

b- In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. – YouTube

c-In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth (4) – YouTube

d- What is an essay | Essay Definition – UK Essays

2- EVENTS/IDEAS: FORMATION OF THE SUN…Nuclear fusion was started… all that is began to come forth. As the energy and matter cool, billions of suns begin to form. Atoms are created and combine to form hydrogen; hydrogen  atoms fuse together to form helium; nuclear fusion is started; the lost mass is smashed into billions of particles, which creates gravity with a centripetal and centrifugal forces…

a-How was the Sun formed? – NASA

b-How the Sun was Born – YouTube

c-Sun – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d-The Sun – Universe Today

e- Do your own research…until you are satisfied with the amount of knowledge you have gained… and then write your essay.

3- EVENTS/IDEAS: HOW OLD IS THE EARTH?…Scientists have calculated that Earth is 4.54 billion years old … 

a-Born out of the sun 2014

b.How Was Earth Formed? – Space.com

c.BBC Earth – Timeline – The Earth formed from a vast gas and dust

d.A perfect planet…the formation of the earthYouTube

4- EVENTS/IDEAS: PREHISTORY…THE ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule.

a..Prehistoric Time Line – National Geographic

b.The First Living Things — The Outline of History by H. G. Wells

c.The Age of Lowland Life

5- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT ARE DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM?…Computers are often called data processing machines or information processing machines.

Data is like the symbols on your computer keyboard; information is something that can be made from those symbols,such as: E=MC2, an Einstien formula; knowledge is knowing what each of those symbols in the information means; wisdom is knowing what you can or  cannot do with that knowledge that is encompassed in that formula.

INSTRUCTIONS: click on the links below. When you read and listen and do your own research, write your essay.

a. Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom – Oregon Technology

b..The Wisdom of God | Bible.org

6. SPECIAL TOPICS… WHAT IS SUCCESS?…We often think of being a success in status and financial terms

Since you are doing this Course of Study in order to be successful, we need to examine what success is… Since everything begins with just an idea, you might say that success is the ability to convert an idea from the abstract to the concrete. Success could be the ability to satisfy your innate  desires and reach your objectives while staying within the boundaries of the society in which you live.

INSTRUCTIONS: Click on to the links below read and listen, and do your own research; then write your own essay on success. Two great books you should read: Three Steps to Success and Think and Grow Rich

a. .What is Success? – YouTube

b. .What Is the Definition of Success Anyway? | Anna Partridge

c.Napoleon HillThink And Grow RichFull Length YouTube

d. 3 steps to Success

 7- EVENTS/IDEAS: 8,000-3,000BC…CIVILIZATION BEGINS… People stopped being hunters and gatherers and settle down to farming and domesticating animals. How did this event changed history forever?
Instructions: click on to the links below to read and listen, and then do your own search before writing your own essay.

a.History of the world – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION

c.The History of the World’s Civilizations in 2 Minutes – YouTube

8- EVENTS/IDEAS: 3000BC…  RAMESSES I… founding Pharaoh of ancient Egypt … Hieroglyphics,  engineering and irrigation of land…Learn about the Pharaohs and the Ancient Egyptian Civilization … 

a. Ra messes I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Ramesses I: The Search for the Lost Pharaoh

c.Pharaoh – Ramses (part 1) – YouTube

9- EVENTS/IDEAS: 3000BC..BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION IN EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA… is usually held to have begun around 3000 BC. 

a. FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT

b.Mesopotamia (Sumerians, first civilization on earth) – YouTube

c.Architectural Marvels of Ancient Mesopotamia – Fairfield

d.What have you learned ? Tell us in your essay.

10- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2500BC..PYRAMIDS… INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION…The great pyramids at Giza in Egypt are built about this time… 

a.Early Civilization in the Indus Valley [ushistory.org]

b.The Remarkable Indus Valley Civilization – Today I Found Out

c.Ancient Indus River Valley CivilizationYouTube

11- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2000BC…  SECRETS OF STONEHENGE…Stonehenge may be the best-known and most mysterious relic of prehistory.

a. The Secrets of StonehengeYouTube

b.Stonehenge Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles ..

c.10 facts about Stonehenge | History Extra

d. What is your theory?

12- A MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS HISTORY?…is a study of historiography that was written by the English historian E. H. Carr.

a. The History Guide — What is History?

b.History in Focus: What is History? – Institute of Historical Research

c.What is HistoryYouTube

13- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?…the term “philosophy” means, “love of wisdom.”

14- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1760BC…BEGINNING OF CIVILIZATION IN CHINA… with the first historical dynasty, the Shang, and the first writing and bronze artworks…

a.Ancient China – Dynasties of Power (Documentary) – YouTub

b.Shang dynasty | Chinese history | Britannica.com

c.Great Wall of China: Great Wall Tours, Facts, History, Photos

d. Search all the links on each article.

15-HAMMURABI:1750BC… Hammurabi… King of Egypt…Writing, First written code of law, and monumental architecture.

a.Code of HammurabiLegal History and Philosophy

b.Code of Hammurabi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Code Of Law Season 3 – YouTu

16- MOSES: 1393BC-1273BC… Moses is known as the most influential prophet in Judaism; he led the Israelite slaves to freedom…

a.Who Was Moses? Was He More than an Exodus Hero? – Biblical

b.The Exodus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Biblical Archaeology Society: Network Home

d.The Story of Moses, – YouTube

e.If you don’t have a library card, you should get one. The library has a world of free information.

17- A MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS SCIENCE?…  to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works.

a.What is science? – Understanding Science

b.What is scienceYouTube

c.Science – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

18- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1250BC-1240BC…TROJAN WARS…Bronze Age Conflicts… A recent study published by German archaeologists  sheds  light on the extent of Bronzeage  in northern Europe.

a. Trojan War – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

b.Truth of Troy: Trojan War StoryYouTube

c.Trojan War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Do your search.

19- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1027BC-256BC…ZHOU DYNASTY.. .The Zhou Dynasty, the longest in Chinese history, saw ancient China dramatically transformed…

a. Zhou dynasty | Chinese history | Britannica.com

b.Zhou dynasty – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Zhou DynastyYouTube

d. Your essays should be about a page.

20- EVENTS/IDEAS: approx.1000BC… ZOROASTER… WORLD OLDEST RELIGION…Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed worldreligions. e …

a. ZOROASTER – World History

b.The Ancient Religion of ZoroastrianismYouTube

c.Zoroastrianism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. WHAT DO YOU  THINK OF RELIGION?

21- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1000BC…BEGINNING OF SANSKRIT LITERATURE..The Sanskrit literature of India dates back in oral tradition to the middle …

a.Sanskrit and Indian Civilization – YouTube

b.Origin and Development of Sanskrit – Hinduwebsite.com

c.Sanskrit – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d  How does Western Language relate to Sanskrit?

22- EVENTS/IDEAS: mid.800s BC …THE DELPHI ORACLE.. Dating back to 1400 BC, the Oracle of Delphi was the most important shrine in all Greece…

a.The Oracle of Delphi—Was She Really Stoned? – Biblical

b.The Oracle of DelphiYouTube

c.The Oracle at Delphi – PBS

23- EVENTS/IDEAS: 872BC…THE FOUNDING OF CARTHAGE…Carthage is indisputably of key importance to Roman history.

a. Carthage – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b.CARTHAGE – THE RISE AND FALL – YouTube

c. Carthage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.You should try to write at least three quarters of a page on each lesson.

24- EVENTS/IDEAS: 820BC…LAWS OF LYCURGUS…The oracle told Lycurgus that his prayers had been heard and that the state which observed the laws of Lycurgus…

a. Lycurgus of Sparta – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Laws of Lycurgus: Lawgiver of Sparta – YouTube

c.L Y C U R G U S – History of Greece

25- HOMER: 800BCE-701BC… Homer was an epic poet, who is most known for being the literary genius behind both the Iliad and the Odyssey.

a.Homer – Poet – Biography.com

b.Homer’s Odyssey (story) – YouTube

c.Homer | Greek poet | Britannica.com

d.The Iliad: Homer Biography – Cliffs Notes

e.The internet is afloat with free information; don’t limit your search.

26- EVENTS/IDEAS: 776BC… THE OLYMPIC GAMES…THE ancient Olympic Games, first staged in 776 BC, were part of a religious festival for the god Zeus.

a. History – Ancient Olympics – First Olympic Games History from Olympia

b.Olympic Games – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.The History of the OlympicsYouTube

27- EVENTS/IDEAS: 753BC…THE FOUNDING OF ROME…The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology.

a.Myths and Legends – The Founding of Rome – YouTube

b.Myths and Legends Founding of Rome – Ancient/Classical History

c.Founding of Rome – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSo great as the respect that all classes had for his judgment, reason and fairness, that Solon was given carte blanche to rewrite the laws and …

28- SOLON: 594BC… becomes governor of Athens…Laws of Solon…Solon was given carte blanche to rewrite the laws and …Athens a Constitution…

a. Birth of Democracy: Solon the Lawgiver – Agathe.gr

b.Solon an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and elegiac poet – YouTube

c. Solon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

29- LORD GAUTAMA BUDDHA: 563BCE-480BC …Lord Buddha is known as the founder of Buddhism, and is regarded as The Supreme Buddha…

a. Gautama Buddha – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Gautama BuddhaYouTube

c.THE BASIC TEACHING OF BUDDHA – San Francisco State University

30- EVENTS/IDEAS: 586BC..THE FALL OF TYRE AND THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM…The destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple carried with it not only the … 

a. The Siege of JerusalemYouTube

b. The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70, by Flavius Josephus

c. The Romans Destroy the Temple at Jerusalem, 70 AD

d. There are many sources of information you can find.

31- SPECIAL TOPIC…LEARN TO TYPE THE EASY WAY…

a.Learn to Touch Type in just One Hour – Guaranteed !! – YouTub

b.How to Teach Yourself to Touch Type: 5 Steps

c.How to Type Faster: Tips and Tricks to Master the Keyboard – Hongkiat

32- CONFUCIUS: 1551BC-1479BC… Confucius… a Chinese philosopher whose principles were based on common Chinese traditions; he also coined “The Golden Rule.”

a.Who Was Confucius? – China Family Adventure

b.What Confucius Taught by Sanderson Beck

c Confucius Analects Essay – Critical Essays – eNotes.com.

d.The Life of Confucius animation.divxYouTube

33- EVENTS/IDEAS: 546BC-330BC… PERSIAN EMPIRE…The Persian Empire is any of a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia ( Iran).

a.Kingdoms of PersiaPersia – The History Files

b.Achaemenid Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Achaemenid Empire – Ancient History – World Map

34- EVENTS/IDEAS: 538BC…THE FALL OF BABYLON…is a historical term used to denote the end of the Neo- Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid. 

a .Cyrus takes Babylon (539 BCE) – Livius

b.The Fall of Babylon – Ancient Mesopotamia – Tripod

c. Ancient Hanging Gardens of BabylonYouTube

35- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS NATURE?…the physical world and everything in it that is not made by people.

a. NatureWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Wonderful Earth Nature film – YouTube

c. NatureSummary and Analysis – Cliffs Notes

36- AESCHYLUS: 523BC-456BC… Aeschylus was a Greek tragedian…known as the “father of tragedy,”

a .Aeschylus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.AeschylusYouTube

c Aeschylus – Ancient Greece – Classical Literature

d.Who was Aeschylus? – Ancient Greek Plays – Quatr.us

37-SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY…How to write a standard essay in English.

a. How to Write an Essay (with Sample Essays) – wikiHow

b.How to Write an Effective EssayYouTube

c.EssayWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

38- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS METAPHYSICS?… is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being…

a. What Is Metaphysics – A Modern Metaphysical Perspective

b.SparkNotes: Aristotle (384–322 B.C.): Metaphysics: Books Alpha to

39- SOPHOCLES: 497BCE-406BC… Sophocles wrote 120 plays during the span of his life…Sophocles (497 BC406 BC) A influential dramatist.

a. Sophocles – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Sophocles Biography – Cliffs Notes

c.The History Of Sophocles ! – YouTube

40- PERICLES: 495BCE-429BC… the most prominent general of Athens during the Golden Age…Ancient Greek statesman… 

a. Pericles – General – Biography.com

b.Pericles Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

c.Pericles Parthenon Athenian GoldenAge – YouTube

41- EVENTS/IDEAS: 490BC…THE BATTLE OF MARATHON…The battle of Marathon is one of history’s most famous military engagements.

a.The Battle of Marathon, 490 BC – Eye Witness to History

b.THE BATTLE OF MARATHON 490 BCYouTube

c.Battle of Marathon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

42- EVENTS/IDEAS: 480BC-404BC…  GOLDEN AGE…of Athenian democracy…Democracy, which had prevailed during AthensGolden Age… 

a.History of Greece: The Golden Age of Greece

b.The Golden Age of Ancient GreeceYouTube

c.Greece: Secrets of the Past – The Golden Age of Greece

43- MAJOR SUBJECT… WHAT IS GEOLOGY?…The combination of continents, oceans, and atmosphere makes Earth unique ..

a.How the Earth works (as seen from space) – All parts – YouTube

b.Gaia hypothesis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.SparkNotes: The Good Earth: Themes, Motifs & Symbol

44- EURIPIDES: 485BCE-406BC… Euripides playwright of classical Athens…the last of classical Athens’s three great tragic dramatists, following Aeschylus and Sophocles

a.EuripidesPlaywright – Biography.com

b.FOR YOUR NEXT DREAM 2 – YouTube

c.Euripides – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

45- HERODOTUS: 484BC-425BC…  is referred to as “the father of history,” the only literary work he is known to have produced was that of the record of his inquiry.

a.Herodotus Greek historian father of history – Age of the Sage

b.Herodotus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.The Histories by Herodotus | SummaryYouTube

d. Do your search until you know what you want to know. You are not limited.

46- Socrates: 470BC-399BC Socrates was a Greek philosopher who is renowned as one of the founders of western philosophy.

a.Socrates – Philosopher – Biography.com

b.Socrates – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

c.The Ideas of SocratesYouTube

d. See how many sources of information you can find on this subject.

47- THUCYDIDES: 460BC-395BC… Thucydides was an Athenian historian and philosopher . 

a.Thucydides: A Master HistorianYouTube

b.Thucydides – Ancient HistoryHISTORY.com

c.Greek Historian Thucydides: Biography, Histories & Speeches

48- HIPPOCRATES: 460BC-370BC… physician…  Known as the Father of Medicine.

a.Hippocrates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Hippocrates The Father of Medicine – Classical Wisdom Weekly

c.Hippocrates | History in Minutes #8 – YouTube

d.Only you can limit your education.

49.MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ENGLISH?…There are fourteen punctuation marks commonly used in American English?

a. Punctuation of English – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.English PunctuationYouTube

c.Punctuation – CliffsNotes

50- MAJOR SUBJECT… MATHEMATICS…WHAT IS MATHEMATICS?…Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. 

a.What is Mathematics? – YouTube

b What is Mathematics?

c..Mathematics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

51- ARISTOPHANES: 446BC-386BC…  is known as an Athenian comic playwright…the greatest representative of ancient Greek comedy.

a. Aristophanes‘ Clouds Study Guide – University College London

b.Aristophanes Biography – life, family, death, old, information, born

c.The frogs by aristophanes part 1 HD – YouTube

52- PLATO: 424BC-348BC… Plato was a Greek philosopher and mathematician, who founded the first institution, “The Academy.”

a. Plato: The Republic | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b. Plato: Theory of Knowledge

c. PHILOSOPHY – PlatoYouTube

d. Learn all you want to know about Plato; then write your own essay.

53- EVENTS/IDEAS: 420BC…PLAGUE OF ATHENS…an outbreak of bubonic plague which occurred there in ….

a. Plague of Athens – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The plague of Athens: epidemiology and paleopathology.

c. A mysterious illness kills one third of Athenians – YouTube

54- EVENTS/IDEAS: 415BC… SIEGE OF SYRACUSE…Siege of Syracuse (415-413)… one of the most important campaigns during the Peloponnese War.

a.Siege of SyracuseYouTube

b.The Siege of Syracuse – Livius

c.Military History: Ancient Rome – Bible History Online

55-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS RHETORIC?…Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. And the art of persuasion.

a. Rhetoric – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Purdue OWL: Introduction to RhetoricYouTube

c. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis: 15 Steps (with Pictures)

56- EVENTS/IDEAS: 399BC… Death and Trial of Socrates…

a. The Death of Socrates – Jacques-Louis David

b.The Death Of Socrates (part 1) – YouTube

c..Trial of Socrates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

57-MAJOR SUBJECT…. WHAT IS ENGLISH GRAMMAR?… English grammar rules refer to sentence structure and parts of speech…

a .English grammarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Learn English Grammar: The Sentence – YouTube

c.ACT Spark-notes Test Prep: Basic Grammar and Usage

58- ARISTOTLE: 384BC-322BC… a Greek philosopher and scientist who was taught by Plato…  the “first genuine scientist.”…

a. Aristotle – Philosopher – Biography.com

b.PHILOSOPHY – AristotleYouTube

c.The Best Teaching Quotes Ever | Take-part

d. Why was Aristotle considered to be the first genuine scientist?

59- POTLEMY I SOTER: 367BC-283BC… Ptolemy I Soter was a Macedonian General, serving under Alexander the Great.

a.Ptolemy I Soter, the First King of Ancient Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty

b.Ptolemy I – Ancient History Encyclopedia

c.Ptolemy I SoterYouTube

d. what would you like to remember about Ptolemy?

60- ALEXANDER THE GREAT: 356BC-323BC.. took the thrown of the Macedonian Kingdom at the age of 20. He spent much of his rule leading a military campaign…

a. Alexander the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Alexander the Great History Channel Documentary – YouTube

c.Alexander the Great: 356-323 – Then Again

d. Do your own research…

61- EVENTS/IDEAS: 404 BC…END OF THE PELOPONNESE WAR…Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities.

a. Peloponnesian War | ancient Greek history | Britannica.com

b.Peloponnesian WarYouTube

c. History of the Peloponnesian War Summary – eNotes.com

62-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ARITHMETIC?… means dealing with certain facts that we know, about number.

a. Arithmetic Mean (Average) – GMAT Math Study Guide

b. Arithmetic mean – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Arithmetic Sequence definitionYouTube

d. If you are not satisfied with the choices above, find your own…

63- EVENTS/IDEAS: 300BC…ROMAN CONQUEST OF GREECE…devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities… 

a. How did the Romans conquer classical Greece? – YouTube

b.The Roman Period in Greece – History of Greece

c.The Creation, the Flood, and Gilgamesh – CliffsNotes

64- ARCHIMEDES …: 287BCE-212BC… one of the greatest mathematicians of all time…

a.Archimedes – Hellenistic Mathematics – The Story of Mathematics

b. Greek MathematicsThe Story of Mathematics

c.The Story of MathsYouTube

65- EVENTS/IDEAS: 259BC- 209BC…QUIN SHI HUANG……First true emperor of China…As the first emperor of China..

a. Quin Shi HuangDi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

b.The First Emperor of ChinaYouTube

c.The First Emperor of China – Pearson Readers

66- EVENTS/IDEAS: 218BC-146BC…RISE OF ROME TO THE STATUS OF SUPER POWER…an absolute superpower …a nation that is dominant …

a. Ancient Rome – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b. Crash Course World History #10 – YouTube

c. Polybius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

67-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PHYSICS?...physics utilizes the scientific method to formulate and test hypotheses that are based on observation of the natural world.  …

a.What is Physics? – Inspiration – YouTube

b. PhysicsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.What is physics?| Explore | physics.org

68- EVENTS/IDEAS: 200BC…  ANTIKYTHERA MACHINE… a clock-like machine consisting of more than 30 precise, hand-cut bronze gears.

a. Antikythera mechanism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Antikythera mechanism working model.mov – YouTube

c.2000-year-old Antikythera computer comes back to life – The Guardian

69- EVENTS/IDEAS: 151-146BC…THE FALL OF ANCIENT GREECE… Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted …. 

a. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece | History Today

b. The history of ancient GreeceYouTube

c. The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece – Princeton University Press

70-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS POETRY?…Poetry is many things to many people. Homer, John Milton, Christopher Marlowe, and of course Shakespeare have each given…

a. What Is Poetry? | NEA

b.Rhythm, Feet and Meter in PoetryYouTube

c.How to Analyze Poetry – CliffsNotes

71-  LUCRETIUS : c.99BCE-c.55BC…  a roman poet and philosopher whose only work which is an “epic philosophical poem” that translates in English…

a. Lucretius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Lucretius | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

c. Introduction to Lucretius: On the Nature of Things – Epicurus.info

72- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ALGEBRA?…Algebra is a branch of mathematics dealing with symbols and the rules for manipulating those symbols.

a. Algebra 1 – How to find three consecutive numbers with a YouTube

b.Algebra 1 – How to find three consecutive numbers with a YouTube

c .AlgebraWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. History of algebraWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

73- VIRGIL : 70BCE-19BC… Virgil was a poet of ancient Rome who is known traditionally as being one of Rome’s greatest poets of all time…

a. Virgil – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Virgil | Roman poet | Britannica.com

c. Vergil – Ancient Rome – Classical Literature

74- JULIUS CAESAR: 48BC-31BC… Julius Caesar and Augustus establish monarchy in the Roman Empire.

a. Augustus – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

b. THE ROMAN EMPIRE – JULIUS CAESARYouTube

c. Julius CaesarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

75- EVENTS/IDEAS: By 270 BCE… ROME CONTROLLED ALL OF ITALY…conquered Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor.

a. History of the Roman Empire, the Golden age of Rome

b. Why the Roman Empire had the Greatest Golden Age YouTube

c .Ancient Rome – Ancient History – HISTORY.com

76- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS GEOMETRY?…Geometry is the visual study of shapes, sizes, patterns, and positions.

a. Geometry — from Wolfram MathWorld

b. Geometry Lesson 1 – Building Blocks of GeometryYouTube

c. Geometry/Introduction – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

d. The objective here is not to make a mathematician out of you, but help you find out if you want to major in math.

77-JESUS CHRIST…Jesus Christ: 5BC-30AD… Jesus is the central figure in the Christian faith, and thought to be the “Son of God.” …

a. Jesus in Christianity – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Documentary | Frontline – From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians

c. From Jesus To Christ – The First Christians – PBS

78- APOLLONIUS OF TYANA… 3BC-100AD… Apollonius was a Greek philosopher around the time of Christ…The charismatic teacher and miracle worker… 

a. Apollonius of Tyana -the Real Jesus of the New Testament

b. Apollonius of Tyana – New World Encyclopedia

c .ApolloniusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

79- “ST. PAUL” THE APOSTLE… 5-67AD… is often revered as one of the most influential figures of the Apostolic Age… to teach the gospel of Christ to the 1st century world.

a. Saint Paul, the Apostle | Christian Apostle | Britannica.com

b.The Church of St Paul the Apostle

c. The Life of Paul, the ApostleYouTube

80-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TRIGONOMETRY?... defines relations between elements of a triangle. In a triangle, there are six basic elements: 3 sides and 3 angles. ..

a. What Is Trigonometry? – LiveScience

b. Basic TrigonometryYouTube

c.TrigonometryWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

81- EVENTS/IDEAS: 33-36AD…THE TRIAL AND CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS… the accounts of the arrest, trial, and crucifixion of Jesus contained in the Bible history…

a. The Arrest, trial and Crucifixion | The Living Word Library

b. Questions and Answers Concerning the Arrest, Trial, and Crucifixion

c. Sanhedrin trial of Jesus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

82- PLUTARCH: c.46-c.125AD… a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist…known in English as Plutarch…

a .Plutarch – Academic – Biography.com

b. Plutarch (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c.Plutarch’s Morals, vol. 3 – Online Library of Liberty

83- EPICTETUS: c.55-135AD… a stoic philosopher whose teachings were transcribed by his pupil.

a. Epictetus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Ignorance is Not an Excuse | The Boothby Institute

c. The Philosophy and Ethics of EpictetusYouTube

84- TACITUS: c.56-c.117AD… Tacitus was a historian and a senator of the Roman Empire.

a. Tacitus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.TacitusYouTube

c.Tacitus | Roman historian | Britannica.com

85- NICOMACHUS: 60-120AD… an important Greek mathematician who wrote about the mystical properties of numbers.

a. Nicomachus of Gerasa | Roman philosopher and mathematician

b. How the Ancient Greeks shaped modern mathematicsYouTube

c.Greek Legacy: How the Ancient Greeks shaped modern mathematics

86- EVENTS/IDEAS: 64-303AD…PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS …Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire … Emperor Nero executed Christians…

a. Persecution of Christians – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Christian Persecution Quick Facts | Issues at a Glance | The Ethics

c.persecuted christian facts & videos | persecution of – SO4J.com

87- EVENTS/IDEAS: 70AD…THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM…The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 was the decisive event of the First Jewish– Roman War.

a.Siege of Jerusalem (1099) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70, by Flavius Josephus

c .DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM A.D. 70 Part 1 – YouTube

88- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS RELIGION?..it crosses so many different boundaries in human experience, religion is notoriously difficult to define.

a.What is Religion? – WHY STUDY RELIGION

b.What is Religion? – YouTubeList of religions and spiritual traditions – Wikipedia, the free.

c.List of religions and spiritual traditions – Wikipedia, the free

89- PTOLEMY: 100-170AD… Claudius Ptolemy was writer and mathematician … He was also a poet of a single epigram…

a. Ptolemy | Egyptian scientist and mathematician | Britannica.com

b. Physical Science 10.1b – PtolemyYouTube

c.Ptolemy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

90- EVENTS/IDEAS: 200AD …HERO OF ALEXANDER’S BOOK OF MACHINES… Baths of Caracalla in Rome… Watermill complex near Arles…

a. Hero of Alexandria and His Amazing Machines – Today I Found Out

b.Amazing Ancient Discoveries (Heron of Alexandria) – YouTube

c.Hero of AlexandriaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

91- :MARCUS  AURELIUS…121-180AD… IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE LAST OF FIVE GOOD ROMAN EMPERORS …

a. Five Good Emperors | ancient Rome | Britannica.com

b.Five Good EmperorsYouTube

c.The Five Good Emperors of Rome & the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty

92- GALEN OF PERGAMON..: 130-200AD… The development of medicine owes a lot to Galen. He was of Greek origin …

a. Galen – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BERGAMALI GALEN – GALEN OF PERGAMONYouTube

c.Galen of Pergamum | Greek physician | Britannica.com

93- PLOTINUS: c.204-270AD.. .was an Egyptian/Greek/Roman philosopher of the Hellenistic period.

a. The Philosophy of Plotinus: Representative Books from the Enneads

b.Plotinus – Mystic and Philosopher – YouTube

c. .PlotinusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

94- CONSTANTINE THE GREAT…272-337AD… Constantine was the 57th Emperor of Rome…. Constantine was a great military commander winning major victories over the …

a.Constantine I | Roman emperor | Britannica.com

b.Constantine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Constantine the GreatYouTube

95- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THEOLOGY…Webster’s dictionary defines theology as “The science of God or of religion…

a. What is Theology? | Bible.org

b. What is the definition of theology? – GotQuestions.org

c. Theology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

96- EVENTS/IDEAS: 312AD… CONVERSION OF CONSTANTINE … turning point in Christian history occurred when the Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity...

a.Constantine the Great and Christianity – Wikipedia, the free

c.Constantine I | Roman emperor | Britannica.com

97- EVENTS/IDEAS: 312-493AD…THE GROWTH OF THE PAPACY… The preeminence of the bishop of Rome over the entire Catholic Church…

a. History of the papacy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. GROWTH OF PAPAL POWER

c. papacy | Roman Catholicism | Britannica.com

98- EVENTS/IDEAS: 330AD…THE FOUNDING OF CONSTANTINOPLE… Because it lay on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus, the Emperor Constantine understood…

a.Constantinople – Ancient History Encyclopedia

b. THEY MIGHT BE GIANTS “Istanbul (Not Constantinople)” – YouTube

c.The Fall of ConstantinopleYouTube

99- AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO… 354-430AD… an elderly philosopher and theologian whose works influenced the development of Christianity greatly.

a. St. Augustine of Hippo – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online

b.Augustine of Hippo – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Life and Thought of St. Augustine of HippoYouTube

100- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS CALCULUS..Calculus is the study of how things change. It provides a framework for modeling systems in which there is change…

a.What is Calculus? Answered in an easy to understand way with

b.What is calculus? – YouTube

c. CalculusWikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

101- EVENTS/IDEAS: 449A…THE SAXON CONQUEST OF BRITAIN…The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain was the process, from the mid 5th to early 7th …

a. Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The Anglo Saxon Invasions of Britain – YouTube

c. BBC – Primary History – AngloSaxonsInvasion and settlement

102- EUCLID: mid 400s-mid 300s AD… Euclid, a Greek mathematician known as the “father of geometry.”

a. Euclid | Greek mathematician | Britannica.com

b. What’s the point of Geometry? – EuclidYouTube

c. Euclid, the Father of Geometry – Greek Mathematics – Explorable.com

103-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TRUTH?…If there is such a thing as truth, then we should be able to find it. If truth cannot be known, then it probably doesn’t exist.

a. What is truth? | CARM | Relativism

b.What Is Truth? – YouTube

c.WHAT IS TRUTH

104- MAJOR SUBJECT…SALESPERSONSHIP..NOTHING EVER HAPPENS UNTIL SOMETHING IS SOLD…TO BE SUCCESSFUL YOU HAVE TO SELL YOURSELF…

a. Cricket: Gun Salesperson of the Year – YouTube

b. salespersonship – Wiktionary

c. 8 Rules for Successful Selling – Business Know-How

d. The 5 Great Rules of Selling: The Revised and Enlarged Edition

e.Dale Carnegie Free eBook – How To Win Friends Influence People

105- EVENTS/IDEAS: 476AD…FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE… in Western Europe…

a. 8 Reasons Why Rome Fell – History Lists – History Channel

b. The Roman Empire – Episode 6: The Fall Of The Roman YouTube

c. Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire – Top Documentary

106- EVENTS/IDEAS: 521A…JUSTINIAN CLOSES ATHENIAN PHILOSOPHY SCHOOLS…Although philosophers continued to teach Plato’s philosophy in Athens

a. Emperor Justinian’s Closure of the School of Athens – Bede’s Library

b. Old Roman chant – Tecum Principium – YouTube

c. Justinian I – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Justinian the Great – YouTube

107- EVENTS/IDEAS: WHAT IS A THESIS?…A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove.

a.What is a thesis? – Kean University

b Thesis Statements – The Writing Center

c.Writing Tips: Thesis Statements – Center for Writing Studies

108- MUHAMMAD: 570-632AD… Muhammad is the most prominent prophet in Islam. To many he is known to be the creator of the Islamic religion…

a. Islam Guide: Who Is the Prophet Muhammad (Mohammed)?

b.Muhammad The Prophet Of Islam – The Movie – Official YouTube

c.MuhammadWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

109- EVENTS/IDEAS: 632-641AD…THE CONQUEST PERSIA…The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran led to the end of the Sasanian Empire …i

a. Islamic conquest of Persia – YouTube

b. Muslim conquest of Persia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.History of Iran: Islamic Conquest – Iran Chamber Society

110- EVENTS/IDEAS: 709-713AD…THE ARAB CONQUEST O F SPAIN…Islamic Conquest of Hispania.. Coat of arms of Spain …. This situation lasted some 40 years… 

a.The Truth About the Arab Conquest of Spain (711-788) – YouTube

b. The Truth About the Arab Conquest of Spain (711-788) | Daily Stormer

c.Muslim conquest of the Maghreb – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

111- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS TYRANNY?… cruel and unfair treatment by people with power over others. : a government in which all power belongs to one person…

a.Tyranny | Definition of Tyranny by Merriam-Webster

b. Principles of Tyranny – Constitution Society

c.Tyranny – Wikipedia

112- CHARLEMAGNE: 742-814AD…  is known as the Holy Rome Emperor…also known as Karl and Charles the Great…

a. Charlemagne | Holy Roman emperor [747?-814] | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – Charlemagne

c.Charlemagne – Part 1: The Founder of Europe – YouTube

113-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS VIRTUE AND VISE?..Assuming that human agents possess settled dispositions or character traits…

a. Virtue and Vice – Encyclopedia of Philosophy | Encyclopedia.com

b.Virtue and Vice / Fear, and Loathing in Las Vegas [Drum YouTube

c. Vice and VirtueWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

114- EVENTS/IDEAS: 850-1000AD… THE RISE OF FEUDALISM…the rise of feudalism in areas formerly dominated by Roman institutions meant the breakdown of…

a. The Rise of Feudalism, 850-1000 AD – WWW Virtual Library

b. Feudalism European History AP World History

c. The Rise of Feudalism – YouTube

115- EVENTS/IDEAS: 862AD…THE BEGINNINGS OF RUSSIA…The early history of Russia, like those of many countries, is one of migrating peoples and ancient kingdoms. 

a. Russian history – Russiapedia

b.History of RussiaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Book Summary – CliffsNotes

116- EVENTS/IDEAS: 919-936AD… CONSOLIDATION OF GERMANY BY HENRY II…Henry II spent the next several years consolidating his … 

a. Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Henry II of England – YouTube

c.Lost Worlds Page 11 – From 500AD to 1000AD

117-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A DISSERTATION?…A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree…

a.What Is a Doctoral (Ph.D.) Dissertation?

b.What Is a Dissertation? | Capella University Blog

c.What Is the Difference Between a Thesis and a Dissertation?

118-  LEIF ERIKSON: c.970-c.1020AD… Leif Erikson an Icelandic explorer,  landed in North America before Christopher Columbus…

a. LEIF EREIKSSION – Exploration – HISTORY.com

b.The Viking Explorer Who Beat Columbus to America – History Channel

c. Leif Eriksson – The First European in North AmericaYouTube

119- EVENTS/IDEAS: 988AD…RUSSIA CONVERTS TO ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY…The Church of Russia, known officially as the Russian Orthodox … (

a. History of the Russian Orthodox Church – Wikipedia, the free

b.Russian Orthodox Christian Priest converted to Islam – YouTube

c.Russian Orthodox Church – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

120- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1002AD…DANISH CONQUEST OF ENGLAND…the ease of the conquest, they decided to settle permanently in England. … 

a.Total war: Age of Charlemagne / Westphalia /#11 / Danish conquest

b. VIKINGS – Part 3 – Invasion of England (Norman YouTube

c. History of Anglo-Saxon EnglandWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

121- EVENTS/IDEAS1066AD…NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND…The Norman conquest of England was the 11th century invasion and occupation of England …

a. Norman conquest of England – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The Norman Conquest of EnglandYouTube

c.The Norman Conquest of England – Historic UK

122-HENRY IV: 1076AD… Empire versus Papacy-Henry IV at Canossa…Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII in Canossa 1077, as depicted by Carlo Emanuelle …

a. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Daily Medieval: The Walk to Canossa

c. 2010-11 Medieval Pope-King Battle.m4v – YouTube

123- EVENTS/IDEAS1086AD…DOOMSDAY BOOK INVENTORY OF ENGLAND…The Domesday Book, a detailed inventory of everyone and everything in Norman England

a. BBC – History – British History in depth: The Domesday Book

c.Publication of Domesday BookWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

124- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1088A…FOUNDING OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF BOLOGNA AND PARIS…In the 11th century, Bologna became an important center of legal studies. 

a. University of Paris – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. university | Britannica.com

c.University of ParisYouTube

125- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS LOVE?…Is Love“. She stares into the mirror, youth fading with the sun. The hollows in her face like wishing wells.

a. WHITE LIES LYRICS – Is Love – A-Z Lyrics

b. Gala is Love

c. Love Is Love // Return To Dust | Deathwish Inc.

126- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A CITIZEN?… a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection.

a. Citizen – definition of citizen by The Free Dictionary

b.What is a Good Citizen ?

c. Family Education Series – Being A Good CitizenYouTube

127-GENGHIS KHAN: 1162-1227AD…The Great Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire…Genghis Khan  or Chingis Khan, was the first great military leader…

a.Genghis Khan – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b.Wait For It…The Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17 – YouTube

c.The Mongols in World History | Asia Topics in World History

128-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS JUSTICE?…the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness: to uphold the justice of a cause.

a. Justice, Western Theories of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b. Three Theories of Justice | Ethical Realism

c.A Theory of Justice Summary – e Notes.com

129- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COURAGE?…Courage is a universally admired attribute. From soldiers to entrepreneurs, writers to explorers, living with courage…

a. The Six Attributes of Courage | Psychology Today

b. Courage: No Guts, No Glory – Frank Sonnenberg Online

c.Courage: Experiencing War: Veterans History Project (Library of

130- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1194AD-1500AD… GOTHIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE… dominate Europe… French Gothic architecture is a style of architecture prevalent…

a. French Gothic architecture – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.French Gothic architecture Wiki

c.The Great Gothic Cathedrals of EuropeYouTube

131- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1215AD ..MAGNA CARTA …limits the power of the King…Following a revolt by the English nobility , King John puts his royal seal on the Magna Carta

a.Magna Carta1215YouTube

b. The Magna Carta 1215 – Constitution Society

c.Magna Carta Exclusive Videos & Features – HISTORY.com

132- THOMAS AQUINAS….1225-1274AD …St. Thomas was a Dominican friar and Catholic priest whose influence on natural theology was immense….

a. Get PDF (146K) – Wiley Online Library

b. Saint Thomas Aquinas – Thomistic Philosophy

c.Thomas Aquinas – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

133- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS WISDOM?…The dictionary defines wisdom as “the ability to discern or judge what is true, right , or lasting.” Knowledge, on the other hand…

a. What Is The Bible Definition Of Wisdom? How Are We Wise In God’s

b.What is WisdomYouTube

c.Plato’s view of wisdom

134- MARCO POLO…1254-1324AD… Marco Polo was an Italian merchant and explorer who greatly influenced European cartography…

a. Marco Polo – Journalist, Explorer – Biography.com

b. Marco Polo | Italian explorer | Britannica.com

c. 11 Things You May Not Know About Marco Polo – History Lists

135- EVENTS/IDEAS…1257-1265AD…THE BARONS’ WAR…and the first English Parliament…

a. The BaronsWar, Simon de Montfort v Henry III – Britain Express

b.Edward I of England – YouTube

c. First Parliament of Great BritainWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

136-DANTE ALIGHIERI…1265-1321AD… “Dante” Italian poet during the late Middle Ages..

a. Dante | Italian poet | Britannica.com

b. Dante – Philosopher, Scholar, Poet – Biography.com

c.Dante Alighieri (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

137- EVENTS/IDEAS…1268AD…THE FIRST WEIGHT-DRIVEN MECHANICAL CLOCK…There are two basic types of mechanical clocks, those powered by weights …

a. History of the Clock – The Anderson Institute

b. Antique Chauncey Jerome Weight Driven Wall ClockYouTube

c. History of the Clock – The Anderson Institute

138- PETRARCH: 1304-1374AD…scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

a. Petrarch – Philosopher, Poet – Biography.com

b. ITALIAN HUMANISM – World Wide Web Virtual Library

c. The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) – YouTube

139- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1304AD-1564AD…ITALIAN RENAISSANCE A RE-BIRTH…The term Renaissance, literally means “rebirth” and is the period in European …

a, The Italian Renaissance (AP Euro Review) – YouTube

b. History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery

c. Examining the (Re)Birth of the Renaissance – For Dummies

140- EVENTS/IDEAS…1329A… HUNDRED YEAR WAR… between England and France…The Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts waged from …

a. Hundred YearsWar – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. What Hundred Years War? | History Today

c. 7 facts about the Hundred YearsWar and the battle of Agincourt

141- GEOFFREY CHAUCER: c.1343-1400AD… Geoffrey Chaucer is know as “the father of English literature..

a.Geoffrey Chaucer: The Father of Modern English? | Great Writers

c.Next post: How many Chaucers does it take to change a language?

142- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1347A…REVOLUTION IN ROME…The messages in the Bayside Prophecies on the coming revolution in Rome, Italy given by Jesus and Our Lady…

a. Rome’s Revolution – Richard Alston – Oxford University Press

b. The Problems of Prosperity — The Roman Revolution Pt 1 – YouTube

c. Ancient Rome – Ancient History – HISTORY.com – History Channel

143- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1347AD…FIRST OUTBREAK OF THE BLACK PLAGUE IN EUROPE…The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague

a. Black Death – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. Black Death – Medieval Life and Times

c.Medieval Life: The Black DeathYouTube

144-JOHANNES GUTENBERG : 1395-1468AD… FIRST PRINTING PRESS… Johannes Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer and publisher in Europe…

a. Johannes Gutenberg Biography (1395-1468)

b. social security can only go broke because of ignorance about

c.Johannes Gutenberg | German printer | Britannica.com

145-JOAN OF ARC: 1412-1431AD… Joan of Arc was a heroine of France for the role she played during “The Hundred Years’ War,” and she was made a Roman Catholic Saint.

a. Saint Joan of Arc | French heroine | Britannica.com

b.St. Joan of Arc – Warrior of God (True Story) – YouTube

c.St Joan: Play Summary – CliffsNotes

146-JAN VAN EYCK : 1425AD…Flemish Oil Painter, Best-Known for Ghent … painters of the Netherlandish Renaissance, Van Eyck mastered the art of oil painting…

a. Oil paint – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Jan van Eyck: Flemish Painter – Visual Arts Encyclopedia

c.Jan van Eyck A Flemish Painter – Northern Renaissance YouTube

147- JOHN CABOT: c.1450-c.1500AD… John Cabot, an Italian navigator and explorer who discovered portions of North America. ..

a.John CabotYouTube

b.John CabotExplorer – Biography.com

c.John Cabot – Exploration – HISTORY.com – History Channel

148- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT ARE OPINIONS?…In general, an opinion is a judgment, viewpoint, or statement about matters commonly considered to be subjective. 

a. Opinion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Distinguishing Between Fact, Opinion, Belief, and Prejudice

c Stereotypes and PrejudicesYouTube

149- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: c.1451-1506AD… Christopher Columbus an Italian explorer and navigator  who discovered “The New World.”

150- LEONARDO da VINCI: 1452-1519AD… Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath…Leonardo’s curiosity and insatiable hunger for knowledge never left him.

a. Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci – Wikipedia, the free

b.Leonardo DaVinciYouTube

c.BBC – HistoryLeonardo da Vinci

151- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1453AD-1521AD…GOLDEN AGE OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE IN …MEXICO…The Aztec Empire, which experienced its golden age between…

a. Aztec history

b. History of the Aztecs – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Aztec Civilization – Ancient History EncyclopediaHarvey was an English physician

152- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1453AD…THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE…The siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily…

a. The Fall of Constantinople | History Today

b. The Sack of Constantinople, 1453 – Eye Witness to History

c. The Fall of Constantinople – World History

153-iAMERIGO VESPUCCI: 1457-1512AD… Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer…

a.Amerigo Vespucci Facts & Biography | Famous Explorers

b.Amerigo VespucciExplorerBiography.com

c.Amerigo Vespucci Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

154- NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI…1469-1527AD… Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian philosopher, historian, and known as the founder of political science…

a. Niccolò Machiavelli (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b.POLITICAL THEORY – Nicoli MachiavelliYouTube

c.Niccolo Machiavelli – the Cunning Critic of Political Reason | History

155- NICOLAUS COPERNICUS… 1473-1543AD… Nicolaus Copernicus, a Renaissance astronomer and mathematician…

a.Nicholas Copernicus Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

b.Nicolaus Copernicus – Astronomer, Scientist, Mathematician ..

c. BBC – History – Copernicus

156- JUAN PONCE de LEON…1474-1521AD… Juan Ponce de Leon, led the first Europe expedition to Florida…

a. Juan Ponce de León – Explorer – Biography.com

b. Juan Ponce de Leon | Spanish explorer | Britannica.com

c. Juan Ponce de León – Exploration – HISTORY.com

157- FERINAND MAGELLAN…1480-1521AD… Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer,  first circumnavigation of the world.

a. Ferdinand MagellanExploration – HISTORY.com

b. 10 Surprising Facts About Magellan’s Circumnavigation of the Globe

c.Magellan Was Not the First Person to Circumnavigate the Globe

158- BABUR.. 1483-1530AD… Babur a Central Asian conqueror, the first Emperor of the Mughal Dynasty of India…

a. Babur – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaBabur | Founder of the Mughal DynastyAsian History – About.com

b. Babur | Founder of the Mughal DynastyAsian History – About.com

c. Muslim Rule of India

159- MARTIN LUTHER…1483-1546AD… Martin Luther, a German friar, priest, and theology professor, a pivotal figure during the Protestant Reformation…

a.Martin Luther Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

c. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther – New Advent

160- EVENTS/IDEAS…1485AD… END OF WAR OF ROSES…This event is seen as marking the end of the War of Roses…

a. Wars of the Roses – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The End of the Wars of the Roses

c. 9 Things You Should Know About the Wars of the Roses – History in

161- VASCO da GAMA: 1487AD…was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa to India; making him the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and Asia.

a. Vasco da Gama – Explorer – Biography.com

b. Vasco da Gama – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.World History 1450-1500 AD – History Central

162- EVENTS/IDEAS…1491AD…THE CONQUEST OF CANADA…The British campaign to conquer Canada began in 1758 starting with the capture of the port of Louisburg…

a. Conquest – The Canadian Encyclopedia

b.Canada A Country by Consent: The Conquest

c. CONQUEST OF CANADAThe British campaign to conquer Canada began in 1758 starting with the capture of the port of Louisburg, part of a surrounding colony, which was followed by …

163- EVENTS/IDEAS…1492AD…THE JEWS EXPELLED FROM SPAIN…In the same month in which their Majesties issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out…

a. The Spanish Expulsion (1492) | Jewish Virtual Library

b. Jews to be expelled from Spain – Mar 31, 1492 – HISTORY.com

c. Jews, Expulsion of (Spain; Portugal) – Encyclopedia.com

164- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS…1492AD… Columbus an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer whose first voyage to the New World– The discovery of America…

a. Christopher Columbus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Explorers of North America: EnchantedLearning.com

c.Discovery and Colonization of the New World – The American

165- FRANCOIS RABELAIS…1494-c.1553AD… Francois Rabelais a French writer, physician, monk, Greek scholar, and humanist during the Renaissance…

a.Francois Rabelais | French author | Britannica.com

b.Francois Rabelais Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.François Rabelais Essay – Rabelais, François – eNotes.com

166- EVENTS/IDEA…1494AD…CHARLES VIII INVADES ITALY…The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the … 

a. Charles VIII of France – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Charles VIII Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

c. Charles VIII Facts – Biography – YourDictionary

167- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1497-1499AD… VOYAGES OF VASCO da GAMA…Vasco da Gama found a direct sea route from Europe to Asia, and was the first European to sail to India.

a. Vasco da GamaExploration – HISTORY.com

b.Vasco da Gama – Ages of Exploration

c.Vasco da Gama – Explorer – Biography.com

168- EVENTS/IDEAS…1498AD… THE EXECUTION OF SAVONAROLA…Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola in Florence…

a. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

b. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

c. Execution of Florentine friar Savonarola | History Today

169- EVENTS/IDEA… 1499-1502AD… THE MORISCOS SPANISH MUSLIM ….the Moriscos were descendants of Spain’s Muslim population that converted to Christianity…

a. Morisco | Spanish Muslim | Britannica.com

b. Expulsion of the Moriscos – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Spain’s Forgotten Muslims – The Expulsion of the Moriscos

170- EVENTS/IDEAS…1508AD… LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI …The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League…

a. League of Cambrai | European history | Britannica.com

b.League of Cambrai Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. War of the League of Cambrai – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

171- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1510-1535AD… CONQUESTS OF MEXICO AND PERU…With the Spanish conquests of Mexico and Peru in the early 16 Th century…

a. Conquest of Mexico and Peru

b. History of the Conquest of Mexico & History of the Conquest of Peru

c.Conquest of Mexico and Peru – YouTube

172- MICHELANGELO… 1512AD… Michelangelo is a well-known Italian sculptor, painter, and architect during the time of the Renaissance…

a. MichelangeloPainter, Architect, Poet, Sculptor – Biography.com

b. Michelangelo | Italian artist | Britannica.com

c. Michelangelo: Italian Renaissance Artist – Visual Arts Encyclopedia

173- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1513AD… BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD…The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field was part of a conflict between the Kingdom of England and the …

a. Battle of Flodden Field – Education Scotland

b. Battle of Flodden – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Battle of Flodden Field 1513. – England’s North East

174- FERDINAND MAGELLAN: 1515AD… who is know for the initiation of the Spanish expeditions to the East Indies which led to him being the first to circumnavigate the Earth.

a. Ferdinand Magellan – Exploration – HISTORY.com

b.Ferdinand Magellan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.Ferdinand Magellan Biography – Encyclopedia of World Biography

175- EVENTS/IDEAS…1517-1540AD…THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION…The Protestant Reformation was a  religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval…

a.The Reformation – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Reformation – New Adven

c. Protestant Reformation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

176- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1520AD…FIELD OF CLOTH AND GOLD … Field of Cloth and Gold… In the early 16th century the balance of power in Western Europe was a precarious one…

a. Field of the Cloth of Gold – TudorHistory.org

b.The Field of Cloth of Gold – British Library

c.British School, 16th century – The Field of the Cloth of Gold

177- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1521-1529AD… CHARLES V CONQUERS ITALY…The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy

a. 51. The Emperor Charles V. Wells, H.G. 1922. A Short History of the

b.Charles V | Holy Roman emperor | Britannica.com

c. Italian War of 1494–98 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

178- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1528AD..THE ADMIRAL ANDREA DORIA GUIDED BY NEPTUNE… of Charles V’s imperial fleet, the ruler of Genoa, and a distinguished…

a. Andrea Doria | Genoese statesman | Britannica.com

b.Andrea Doria – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Andrea Doria and Giannettino Doria; The Admiral Andrea Doria

179- MICHEL de MONTAIGNE…1533-1592AD… Michel de Montaigne, one of the more noteworthy philosophers of the French Renaissance…

a.Montaigne, Michel de | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

b.Renaissance Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

c. Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (1533-92) – 1902 Encyclopedia

180- EVENTS/IDEAS…1534AD… SUPRESSION OF THE GREATER MONASTERIES…The dissolution or suppression of the monasteries in England was carried …. 

a. Dissolution of the Monasteries – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII – New Advent

c.Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII – New Advent

181- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1540AD… THE CATHOLIC COUNTER-REFORMATION…The CounterReformation was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council…

a. CounterReformation – PBS CounterReformation | religious history | Britannica.com

b. CounterReformation | religious history | Britannica.com

c.Counter Reformation Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

182-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS ARISTOCRACY?…government by a relatively small privileged class or by a minority consisting of those felt to be best qualified to rule.

a. Aristocracy | Define Aristocracy at Dictionary.com

b. The History Place – Great Speeches Collection: Susan B. Anthony

c. The Aristocracy – Born to Rule: 1875-1914 1st part – YouTube

183- ANDREAS VESALIUS… 1543AD… Vesalius’s On the structure of the Human Body…Known for, De humani corporis fabrica or “the structure of the human body” … 

a. Andreas Vesalius – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

b. Comparative Anatomy: Andreas Vesalius – Understanding Evolution

c. Andreas Vesalius – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

184- WILLIAM GILBERT…1544AD-1603AD… Gilbert was an English physician, physicist, and natural philosopher…William Gilbert’s On the Magnet…

a.William Gilbert Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

b.William Gilbert Founder Of Terrestrial Magnetism – The General

c. Cambridge Scientific Minds

185- MIGUEL de CERVANTES…c.1547-1616AD… “Cervantes” was novelist, poet, and playwright of Spanish descent… wrote Don Quixote…

a. Miguel de Cervantes – Military Leader, Writer – Biography.com

b. Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist, Poet, and Playwright (Signature

c. Miguel de Cervantes | Spanish writer | Britannica.com

186- SIR WALTER RALEIGH…1552-1618AD… Sir Walter Raleigh was an English gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, explorer, made tobacco popular throughout England…

a.Raleigh, Sir Walter (ca. 1552–1618) – Encyclopedia Virginia

b. The Life of Sir Walter Ralegh (1552-1618) [Raleigh Biography]

c. Walter RALEIGH (Sir) – Elizabethan Hero, Explorer and Pirate

187-GERARDUS MERCATO…1512-1594AD… Mercator was a cartographer of Flemish descent, who developed mathematics-based maps of Europe…

a. 12 Maps That Changed the World – The Atlantic

b.Gerardus Mercator Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594 – Getty Images

188- GIORDANO BRUNO…1548-1600AD… Bruno was an Italian Friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer..

a.Giordano Bruno | Italian philosopher | Britannica.com

b. Giordano Bruno – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.1600AD Roman Inquisition – Anthropology: Nelson, Gilbert, Wong

189-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS MIND?…is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory…

a. What Is the Mind? | Psychology Today

b. What’s The Difference Between The Mind And The Brain? – The best

c. What is the Mind? – Kadampa Buddhism

190- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS OLIGARCHY?…Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.

a. Oligarchy | Define Oligarchy at Dictionary.com

b. ligarchy | government | Britannica.com

c. America is an oligarchy, not a democracy or republic, university study

191-EVENT..JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT 1607…The founding of Jamestown, America’s first permanent English colony, in Virginia…

a. History of Jamestown, Virginia (1607–99) – Wikipedia, the free

b. History of Jamestown – Jamestown Settlement

c. Jamestown Colony – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

192- Fancis Bacon…1561-1626AD… Francis Bacon, an English philosopher… was an  statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

a.  Francis Bacon – Scientist, Lawyer – Biography.com

b. BBC – History – Francis Bacon

C. Francis Bacon – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

193- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE… 1564-1616AD… “Shakespeare,” a well-known English poet, playwright, and actor…,

a.Shakespeare’s Elizibethan England 1564 to 1616 AD

b. The Life of William Shakespeare (1564–1616) | Shakespeare in

c. A Man of Culture: English Plays V – William Shakespeare – Hamlet

194- GALILEO GALILEI… 1564-1642AD… Galileo was an Italian astronomer, physicist, philosopher, and mathematician…

a. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) – ScienceWorld – Wolfram

b. What were Galileo’s scientific and biblical conflicts with the Church?

c. Chapter 3 – Department of Physics and Astronomy

195-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS WAR AND PEACE?…War and Peace broadly focuses on Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812…

a. War and Peace – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy — Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs

c.Ten Things You Need to Know About War And Peace – BBC

196- EVENTS/IDEAS:…1568-1648AD…RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC…was an American author, best known for his two popular histories The Rise of the Dutch Republic and The  …

a . Rise of the Dutch Republic I.(of 3) 1555-66, by John Lothrop Motley,

b. The Rise of the Dutch Republic | work by Motley | Britannica.com

c. The Rise of the Dutch Republic & Their Golden Age: History

197-JOHANNES KEPLER…1571-1630AD… KEPLER WAS A GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN, ASTRONOMER, AND ASTROLOGIST…

a. A History of Astronomy. Ptolemy to Copernicus to Johannes Kepler.

b. Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630) – ScienceWorld – Wolfram

c. Johannes Kepler – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

198- EVENTS/IDEAS… 1572AD…THE MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW…The St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Bartholemy in French) in 1572…

a. Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – Aug 24, 1572 – HISTORY.com

b. Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day | French history | Britannica.com

c.CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

199- WILLIAM HARVEY…1572AD..Read a biography about Willam Harvey, the 17th century physician who …

a. William Harvey | English physician | Britannica.com

b. William Harvey – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c. BBC – History – William Harvey

200-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS DESIRE?… desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity…

a. What Is The Root Cause Of Suffering | Buddhapadipa Temple

b. Sexual desire and intimate relationships – Wikipedia, the free

c. he Botany of Desire: Based on the book by Michael Pollan – PBS

201- BLAISE PASCAL..1623-1662AD… Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and Christian philosopher…

a. Blaise Pascal Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. English: Quotes of Zion

c.Blaise Pascal | French philosopher and scientist | Britannica.com

202- CHRISTIAN HUYGENS…1629-1695AD… Huygens, a Dutch mathematician of Huygens led a solo life and never married nor had children.

a. Christiaan Huygens – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Christiaan Huygens Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.Christiaan Huygens – Biography, Facts and Pictures

203- BARUCH SPINOZA… 1632-1677AD… Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese origin. Spinoza an 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism…

a. Benedict de Spinoza | Dutch-Jewish philosopher | Britannica.com

b. Baruch Spinoza (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c. Why Spinoza Was Excommunicated | Humanities

204- JOHN LOCKE… 1632-1704AD… Locke, an English philosopher and physician… Locke is known  as “ the Father of Liberalism.”…

a. John Locke | English philosopher | Britannica.com

b. John LockePhilosopher – Biography.com

c. John Locke – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

205- ROBERT HOOKE: 1635-1703AD… Hooke was an English natural philosopher. Hooke’s Micrographia…is famous for pioneering microscopy and cell science. … 

a. Micrographia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.History – British History in depth: Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher

c. Robert Hooke | ASU – Ask A Biologist

206- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1637AD… Rene Descartes introduces algebraic geometry… “Father of Modern Philosophy”, but he was also … 

a. The Geometry of Rene Descartes | Mathematical Association of

b. Descartes‘ Mathematics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

c.Descartes and the birth of analytic geometry

207- SIR ISAAC NEWTON: 1642-1727AD… Newton, an English physicist and mathematician–  most influential scientists of “all time;”…

a. Isaac Newton | Biography, Facts, Discoveries, Laws, & Inventions

b. Isaac Newton’s Life | Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences

c. Sir Isaac Newton Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

208- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1642-1646AD… THE WAR BETWEEN CHARLES I AND THE PARLIAMENT…The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and . 

a. Charles I | king of Great Britain and Ireland | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – King Charles I

c. History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I

209- WILLIAM PENN: 1644-1718AD… Penn was an English entrepreneur of real estate, philosopher, and an early quake; an early advocate of Democracy and religious freedom…

a. Brief History of William Penn – USHistory.org

b.William Penn – Journalist, Minister, Missionary, Lawyer – Biography

c. William Penn Was Born – America’s Library

210- GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ: 1646-1716AD… Leibniz, a prominent German polymath and philosopher. Leibniz’s first calculus publication…

a. Leibniz summary – MacTutor History of Mathematics

b.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – The Metaphysics Research Lab

c. The Kalam Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God

211- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1648AD… TREATY OF WESTPHALIA ENDS THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR…These treaties ended the Thirty YearsWar the Holy Roman … 

a. Thirty Years War ends – Oct 24, 1648 – HISTORY.com

b.Peace of Westphalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. The Thirty YearsWar & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary

212 MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?…Geography is the study of Earth’s landscapes, peoples, places and environments…

a.What is geography? – Royal Geographical Society

b.What is Geography? – National Geographic Education

c.What is Geography? – Definition, Facts & Types – Video & Lesson

213- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1648AD-1789AD… AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT…The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.

a. Europe history 1789 AD – Time Maps

b. Scandinavia 1789AD – TimeMaps

c.France 1789AD – TimeMaps

214- JACOB BERNOULLI: 1654-1705AD… Bernoulli was a prominent English mathematician who introduced the modern probability theory…

a.Jacob Bernoulli – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bernoulli Jacob biography – MacTutor History of Mathematics

c. Jakob Bernoulli | Swiss mathematician | Britannica.com

215- JOHN EVELYN: 1660AD… John Evelyn, who helped to found the Royal Society at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London

a.History | Royal Society

b. Royal Society | British science society | Britannica.com

c. The Royal Society of London – The Euler Archive

216- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1666AD… French Royal Academy of Science founded…Colbert Presenting the Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences to Louis XIV … 

a. French Academy of Sciences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Academy of Sciences | French organization | Britannica.com

c. French Royal Academy of Sciences, 1671 – Science Photo Library

217- JONATHAN SWIFT: 1667-1745AD… Swift, and Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet, and cleric…

a. Jonathan Swift – Writer – Biography.com

b. Jonathan Swift [1667-1745]: free web books, online

c. The Life of Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) – Luminarium

218- ANTON LEEUWENHOEK’S: 1673AD… Anton Leeuwenhoek’s first published microscope observations…

a.ntonie van LeeuwenhoekWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek | Dutch scientist | Britannica.com

c.History of Microbiology: Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, and Cohn

219- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1679AD…THE EXCLUSION BILL AND HABEAS CORPUS ACT…

a. Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – Constitution Society

c. British History Timeline, Britain through the ages – Being British

220- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1683AD …THE SIEGE OF VIENNA…

a. Battle of Vienna – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. 1683: The Siege of Vienna | History Today

c. 322nd Anniversary of “The Battle of Vienna” (Polish king saves

221- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1685AD…REVOCATION OF THE EDICT OF NANTES…

a. The period of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1661-1700

b. The Edict of Fontainebleau or the Revocation (1685) | Musée virtuel

c.Louis XIV | king of France | Britannica.com

222- JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH: 1685-1750AD… Bach is a well-known German composer and musician during the Baroque period….

a. Johann Sebastian Bach – Composer – Biography.com

b. Johann Sebastian Bach Childhood – Famous People

c. Johann Sebastian Bach Essay Examples | Kibin

223-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS MINERALOGY?…

a.Mineral Chemistry – Tulane University

b.20. mineralogy and chemical composition of clay minerals

c.igneous rock | geology | Britannica.com

224- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1688AD…THE TRIAL OF THE SEVEN BISHOPS…

a.Seven BishopsTrial – Legal Dictionary – The Free Dictionary

b. James II and the Trial of the Seven Bishops | W. Gibson | Palgrave

c. Seven Bishops – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

225- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1688AD…THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION… Revolution of 1688, or Bloodless Revolution , in English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the …

a. Glorious Revolution | English history | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – British History in depth: The Glorious Revolution

c.The 5th of November 1688 AD, Glorious Revolution begins

226- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?… is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances …

a.What Is Chemistry? – Live ience

b.What Is Chemistry? – Definition – About.com

c.General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Introduction: What is chemistry?

227- MONTESQUIEU: 1689-1755AD… “Charles-Louis de Secondt” was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher… Famous for his theory of the separations of powers…

a. charles de secondat, baron de montesquieu (1689 – Liberal Vision

b. Charles Louis de Secondat baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu

c. Articles: Cicero and Obama – American Thinker

228- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1690AD… THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE…

a. BBC – History – The Battle of the Boyne

b.Battle of the Boyne: King William III’s Victory in Ireland | History Net

c. Boyne Valley Brochure – Discover Ireland

229- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1692AD… THE MASSACRE OF GLENCOE…

a. The 13th of February 1692 AD, Massacre of Glencoe

b. Massacre of Glencoe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Glencoe Massacre’s 320-year-old curse on my name | UK news

230- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS BOTANY?

a.What is Botany? – Botanical Society of America

b.What can I do with a major in Botany? – University of Oklahoma

c.Botany: The Original Natural Science | EnvironmentalScience.

231-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ZOOLOGY?…

a.Zoological Subspecies of Man – America First Books

b.gastrozooid | zoology | Britannica.com

c.Science Jobs & Careers – Different Types of Scientists – Facts

232- BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: 1706-1790AD… Franklin is known as one of the founding fathers of the United States of America…

a.Benjamin Franklin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Benjamin Franklin His Autobiography 1706-1757

c.Benjamin Franklin – Diplomat, Scientist, Inventor, Writer – Biography

233- HENRY FIELDING: 1707-1754AD… Fielding was an English novelist and dramatist who is known for his satirical prowess and earthy humor. ..

a. Henry Fielding – Writer – Biography.com

b. Henry Fielding Biography – CliffsNotes

c.Henry Fielding Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

234- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?

a.What is Psychology? | Simply Psychology

b.What Is Psychology? – About.com

c.BBC Science | Human Body & Mind | What is Psychology?

235- SAMUEL JOHNSON: 1709-1784AD… Johnson an English writer; a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor, and lexicographer…

a. Samuel Johnson – Author, Editor, Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

b. BBC – History – Samuel Johnson

c.Samuel Johnson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

236- DAVID HUME: 1711-1776AD… Hume a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist– highly radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism…

a. David Hume – died 1776AD – Philosophy – Winning-Teams.com

b. David Hume > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy

c. THE GREAT BOOKS OF THE WESTERN WORLD | Augustine

237- JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU: 1712-1778AD… Rousseau a French philosopher, writer, and composer…. The French Enlightenment was influenced by Rousseau’s political philosophy…

a. JeanJacques Rousseau – died 1778 – Philosopher.

b. Spark-notes: JeanJacques Rousseau (1712–1778)

c. POLITICAL THEORY – JeanJacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778

238- LAURENCE STERNE: 1713-1768AD… Sterne, an Anglo-Irish novelist and Anglican clergyman…

a. Laurence Sterne – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Brief biography of Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)

c.Laurence Sterne Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

239- SAMUEL ADAMS: 1722-1803AD… Adams is most known as one of the Founding Fathers of The United States…

a. Samuel Adams, Jr. (1722 – 1803) – Genealogy – Geni

b.Samuel Adams – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Samuel Adams – USHistory.org

240- ADAM SMITH: c.1723-1790AD..Samuel Adams – US History.org. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations…

a. dam Smith – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Adam Smith (1723-1790)

c.Adam Smith – Philosopher, Political Scientist, Journalist, Educator

241-  IMMANUEL KANT: 1724-1804AD… Kant, a German philosopher, is highly considered as the most central influential figure of modern philosophy.

a. Immanuel Kant – Philosopher – Biography.com

b. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

c.What is moral autonomy? – Quora

242- CATHERINE THE GREAT: 1729-1796AD… Catherine II was an empress of
Russia… longest-ruling female leader of Russia….

a. Catherine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Civilization V Leader | Catherine of Russia – YouTube

c.Catherine The Great Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

243- ROBERT TREAT PAINE: 1731-1814AD …Paine was an American lawyer and politician out of Massachusetts.

a. Robert Treat Paine – USHistory.org

b. PAINE, Robert Treat – Biographical Information

c.Robert Treat Paine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

244-GEORGE WASHINGTON: 1732-1799AD… Washington was the first president of The United States of America, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army……

a. 1732 Washington Archives – NewspaperArchive.com

b.George Washington, 1732–1799 | Papers of George Washington

c.Washington, George (1732–1799) – Encyclopedia Virginia

d. George Washington – U.S. President, General – Biography.com

245- ROBERT MORRIS: 1734-1806AD… Morris is one of the Founding Fathers of The United States as well as one of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence…

a.A Biography of Robert Morris 1734-1806 < Biographies < American

b.Robert Morris (1734-1806), University of Pennsylvania University

c.Robert Morris – USHistory.org

246- JOHN ADAMS: 1735-1826AD… Adams, an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat– who was the second U.S. president as well as the first U.S. vice president…

a. John Adams – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Adams Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. English: Quotes of Zion

247-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS MUSIC?..

a. What Is Music? | Thinking Sounds – by Marcel Cobussen

b. Music – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. What is music? how it affects moods, emotions, creating atmosphere

248- JOHN HANCOCK: 1737-1793AD…John Hancock signed the Declaration of Independence and promoted reveloution…

a. John Hancock Biography – Encyclopedia of World Biography

b. John Hancock – U.S. Governor, U.S. Representative – Biography.com

c.John Hancock | United States statesman | Britannica.com

249- EDWARD GIBBON: 1737-1794AD…Edward Gibbon was an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall …

a. Edward Gibbon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Edward Gibbon – Online Library of Liberty

c. Edward GIBBON (1737 – 1794) – LibriVox

250- CHARLES CARROLL: 1737-1832AD…He was the only catholic and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95…

a. Charles Carroll of Carrollton – The Signer | Charles Carroll House

b. Charles Carroll of Carrollton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Catholic Founding Fathers – The Carroll Family

251- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1738AD… THE RISE OF METHODISM AND THE NEW PHILANTHROPY…

a.Methodism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Methodist Origins, Methodist History, Methodist Beliefs – Patheos

c.The History of Methodism | Methodist Heritage

252- JAMES BOSWELL: 1740-1795AD…was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.

a. James Boswell (1740-1795) | James Boswell .info

b. James Boswell (1740-1795) – The Boswell Trust

c.James Boswell – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

253- JOHN PENN: 1741-1788AD…was born in Caroline County, Virginia, to a family of means...

a.John Penn (Continental Congress) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Penn – USHistory.org

c.John Penn | The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the

254- GEORGE WALTON: 1741-1804AD…one of Georgia’s leading lawyers. In 1775, he became secretary of the Georgia Provincial Congress… 

a. George Walton (c.1741 – c.1804) – Genealogy – Geni

b.George Walton | The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of

c. George Walton (1749 – 1804) – Find A Grave Memorial

255- Antoine Lavoisier: 1743-1794AD… Lavoisier discovers oxygen, initiates the chemical revolution…

a. Antoine Lavoisier – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier | Chemical Heritage Foundation

c. Antoine Lavoisier – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

256- THOMAS JEFFERSON: 1743-1826AD…Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. In 1801, he became the United Statesthird President...

a.Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography | Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello

bTimeline of Jefferson’s Life | Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello

c. .Thomas Jefferson | whitehouse.gov.

d.Thomas JeffersonU.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

257-BENJAMIN RUSH: 1745-1813AD…the “father of American psychiatry,” was the first to believe that mental illness is a disease of the mind…

a.Pennsylvania Hospital History: Stories – Dr. Benjamin Rush

b.Benjamin Rush is born – Dec 24, 1745 – HISTORY.com

c.Benjamin Rush – USHistory.org

258- JOHANN WOLFGANG von GOETHE: 1749-1832AD…German poet, playwright, novelist, and natural philosopher is best known for his two-part poetic drama Faust, …

a.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – The Literature Network

c.J.W. von Goethe | The German Way & More

259- THOMAS WRIGHT: 1750AD… Thomas Wright’s Newtonian cosmology…was one of the first to suggest how the universe might be constructed. … 

a.The Cosmology of Thomas Wright of Durham

b.Cosmological Theories Through History – The Physics of the Universe

c.an original theory or new hypothesis of the universe | Tumblr

260- JAMES MADISON: 1751-1836AD…was an American statesman, political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United …

a.James Madison (1751-1836) < Biographies < American History

b.About this Collection – The James Madison Papers, 1723-1859

c.The Political Education of James Madison | History Today

261- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1755AD…BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT…The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock’s campaign or, more commonly, Braddock’s Defeat

a.Braddock Expedition – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Braddock’s defeat Battle of Monongahela river – British Battles

c. The Organization of Braddock’s Army

262- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1755AD… THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF LISBON…

a. 1755 Lisbon earthquake – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake

c. Lisbon earthquake of 1755 | Portugal | Britannica.com

263- MOZART: 1756-1791AD…Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a musician capable of playing multiple instruments  …

a. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Wolfgang Mozart – Pianist, Composer – Biography.com

c. Renown Ego’s: a timeline of historical ego’s – The Order of Time

264- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1756-1763AD… THE SEVEN YEAR’S WAR…The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France

a. The Seven Year War Website ( French and Indian War )

b. The Seven Years War: Crash Course World History #26 – YouTube

c. Seven Years War – New World Encyclopedia

265- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1776…WATT-BOULTON STEAM ENGINES… became commercially available…

a.Watt steam engine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Boulton and Watt Engine – Museum Of Applied Arts And Sciences

c.Boulton and Watt steam engine , 1785 – Powerhouse Museum

266- JAMES MONROE…: 1758-1831AD…was the fifth President of the United States..

a. James Monroe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James Monroe – Miller Center

c. James Monroe | whitehouse.gov

267- JOHN DOLLOND: 1758AD John Dollond patents color-corrected microscope lens…

a. John Dollond – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Dollond – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

c. John Dollond – Florida State University

268- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1763-1766AD… PROSECUTION OF JOHN WILKES… and passing of the Stamp Act…

a.George Grenville – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. George Grenville | prime minister of Great Britain | Britannica.com

c. A Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act : The Colonial Williamsburg

d. Stamp Act – American Revolution – HISTORY.com

269- ANDREW JACKSON: 1767-1845AD…was the seventh President of the United States

a. Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 A brief biography

b.Andrew Jackson 1767-1845 A brief biography < Biographies

c. Andrew Jackson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

270-  JOHN QUINCY ADAMS…1776-1848…6th President of the United States… 

a.Biography of John Quincy Adams

b.John Quincy Adams, 6th President of the United States (1767 – 1848

c. John Quincy Adams | whitehouse.gov

271- JAMES HARGREAVES: 1767AD… James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny…

a. James Hargreaves – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. James Hargreaves | English inventor | Britannica.com

c. James Hargreaves | Biography, Inventions and Facts

272- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1775-1783…AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR..

a.American Revolutionary War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. American Revolution History – History Channel

c. US History Timeline: War of Independence

273- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1768AD… THE INVENTION OF THE STEAM ENGINE…

a. The Invention of the Steam Engine

b. Industrial History: The History of the Steam Engine – ThomasNet

c.History of the steam engine – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

274- JEAN BAPTISTE: 1768-1830AD… Joseph Fourier…School of Mathematics…

a. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830) – School of Mathematics

b. Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier – Encyclopedia.com

c. Fourier , Jean Baptiste Joseph – Mathematical & Statistical Sciences

275- NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: 1769-1821AD…also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th …

a. Napoleon – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Napoleon Bonaparte – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

c. Civilization V Leader | Napoleon of France – YouTube

276- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1769AD… JAMES WATT PATENTS THE STEAM ENGINE…

a. James Watt | Scottish inventor | Britannica.com

b. BBC – History – James Watt

c. James Watt – Building the Steam Engine – Inventors – About.com

277-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS EDUCATION?…

a. What is education? definition and meaning – BusinessDictionary.com

b. Education – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. What Is Education?, Jackson – University of Chicago Press

278- BEETHOVEN: 1770-1827AD…He was an innovator, widening the scope of sonata, …

a. Ludwig van Beethoven – Pianist, Composer – Biography.com

b. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) – British Library

c. Ludwig van Beethoven Biography – Profile, Childhood, Life, Timeline

279- GEORGE WILHELM: 1770-1831AD Friedrich Hegel…one of the greatest systematic thinkers in the history of Western philosophy. In addition to epitomizing …

a. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel – Philosopher – Biography.com

c. Hegel – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

280- WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: 1770-1850AD…Wordsworth’s magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semi autobiographical poem…

a. William Wordsworth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

c.William Wordsworth Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

281- RICHARD ARKWRIGHT: 1771AD… Richard Arkwright’s water-powered spinning “frame”…

a. Richard Arkwright – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Richard Arkwright | HISTORY

c. Arkwright’s Water Frame spinning machine – BBC

282- SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE: 1772-1834AD…the English Romantic poet and opium addict who wrote ‘The Rime of the Ancient … 

a. Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Philosopher, Poet, Literary Critic

c. Samuel Taylor Coleridge : The Poetry Foundation

283- WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON: 1773-1891ADS…was the ninth President of the United States. He died shortly after taking the office in 1841, having the shortest…

a.William Henry Harrison – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b.William Henry Harrison: Accomplishments, Campaign & Presidency

c. William Henry Harrison – Top 10 Forgettable Presidents – TIME

284- EVENTS/IDEAS…DESTRUCTION OF TEA IN BOSTON HARBOR…

a.Boston Tea Party – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Destruction of British East India Company Tea | Boston Tea Party

c. Sons of Liberty dump British tea – Dec 16, 1773 – HISTORY.com

285- MERIWETHER LEWIS: 1774-1809AD…The official leader of the epic Lewis and Clark Expedition…

a. Meriwether Lewis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Meriwether Lewis, Captain (1774 – 1809) – Genealogy – Geni

c. PBS – THE WEST – Meriwether Lewis

286- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1775AD-1789AD… AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND CONSTITUTION…

a. The U.S. Constitution – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. The American Revolution and Constitution by Stephanie Harvey

c. Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution – Digital History

287- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1776AD… U.S. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE…

a.Declaration of Independence

b.Declaration of Independence – Office of the Historian

c.Declaration of Independence – Text Transcript

288- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1777AD Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga…

a.Surrender of General Burgoyne | Architect of the Capitol | United

b. The Defeat and Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga | Teaching

c. Battles of Saratoga – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

289- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1781AD… THE SURRENDER OF CORNWALLIS AT YORKTOWN…

a.Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown – Oct 19, 1781 – HISTORY.com

b.Siege of Yorktown – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

290- ZACHARY TAYLOR: 1784-1850AD…a general and national hero in the United States Army 

a.Zachary Taylor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Zachary Scott Taylor, 12th President of the United States (1784

c. Zachary Taylor is born – Nov 24, 1784 – HISTORY.com

291- CALVIN COOLIDGE: 1784-1933AD…President Harding died unexpectedly while in office, so the vice president, Calvin Coolidge, stepped up. 

a. Calvin Coolidge: Impact and Legacy—Miller Center

b. Calvin Coolidge | whitehouse.gov

c. Calvin Coolidge – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

292- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1787-1792AD… THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CRIMEA…

a.Russo-Crimean Wars – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Russo-Crimean Wars – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. History of Crimea – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

293- ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER: 1788-1860AD…one of the greatest philosophers of the 19th century

a.Arthur Schopenhauer | German philosopher | Britannica.com

b.Arthur Schopenhauer – died 1860AD – Philosophy

c. Arthur Schopenhauer – The Proceedings of the Friesian School

294- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1789AD-1815AD… FRENCH REVOLUTION…

a.French Revolution: 1789 AD1815 AD – NYSED Global History and

b.French Revolution – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.French Revolution – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

295- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1789AD The taking of the Bastille

296- MICHAEL FARADAY: 1791-1867AD…was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and …

a. Michael Faraday – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Michael Faraday – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c.Michael Faraday Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

297-SPECIA TOPIC…WHAT IS CAPITALISM? …ADAM SMITH, FATHER OF CAPITALISM…Means of production and distribution mostly in the hands… b.What is capitalism? – The Capitalism Site

c.What Is Capitalism? – Back to Basics – Finance & Development, June

298- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SOCIALISM?.. KARL MARX, FATHER OF SOCIALISM…MEANS OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION MOSTLY  IN THE …

a.What is Socialism? | World Socialist Movement

b.What Is Socialism? – YouTube

c.Socialism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

299-SPECIAL TOPICS…WHAT IS MIXTURISM? …JAMES CARROLL, FATHER OF MIXTURISM…Means of production and distribution mostly in the hands of private and joint enterprise… and infrastructure such as roads , bridges, schools, heath insurance, Social Security,etc. in the hands of public enterprise…

a.The Philosophy of Mixturism – Internet Free Press

b.August 14, 2015 – Internet Free Press

c. Social security can only go broke because of ignorance about ..

d. .Mixturism

300- ERASMUS DARWIN: 1794AD…was an English physician… One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment, he was also a natural …

a. Erasmus Darwin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Erasmus Darwin – University of California Museum of Paleontology

c. Erasmus Darwin | British physician | Britannica.com

301- JAMES K. POLK: 1795-1849AD…was the 11th President of the United States (1845–49). Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North …

a. James K. Polk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.North Carolina History Project : James K. Polk (1795-1849)

c.The U.S.-Mexican War . Prelude to War . James K. Polk (1845-1849

302- EVENTS/IDEAS: WAR OF 1812…American fears of the Native Americans ended, as did British plans to create a …. The War of 1812 was highly significant in Britain’s…

a. War of 1812 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. An American Perspective | War of 1812 | PBS

c. War of 1812 – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

303-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COLONIALISM?…

a. Colonialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. colonialism, Western | politics | Britannica.com

c.Colonialism and Imperialism intro – YouTube

304- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?…

a. Imperialism | Define Imperialism at Dictionary.com

b. Imperialism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. imperialism | political science | Britannica.com

305- SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS NATIONALISM?…

a. The Nationalism Project: What is Nationalism?

b. Nationalism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. nationalism | politics | Britannica.com

306- SPECIAL TOPIC …WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?

a. What is Democracy? Definition, Types & History – LiveScience

b. What is Democracy? – YouTube

c. parliamentary democracy | government | Britannica.com

307- LAPLACE: 1799AD… Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics…

a. A treatise of celestial mechanics : Laplace, Pierre Simon, marquis de

b. Mathematical Treasures – Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics

c. Celestial Mechanics | work by Laplace | Britannica.com

308- VOLTA: 1800AD… Volta invents the electric battery… The invention of photography..

a. Volta describes the electric battery – American Physical Society

b. Alessandro Volta – Creator of the first Battery

c. History of Electricity

309- ROBERT FULTON…1801-1807AD… Robert Fulton invention of the Steamboat…

a. Robert Fulton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Robert Fulton: Inventor of the Steamboat – Famous American Inventors

c. Robert Fulton | American inventor | Britannica.com

310- RALPH WALDO EMERSON: 1803-1882AD…was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid- 19th …

a. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Philosopher, Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

c.Ralph Waldo Emerson – American Transcendentalism Web

311- NATANIEL HAWTHORNE: 1804-1864AD…American novelist, Dark Romantic, and short story writer …

a. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Author – Biography.com

b. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Literature Network

c. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

312- FRANKLIN PIERCE: 1804-1869AD…Franklin Pierce was 14th President of the United States...

a. Franklin Pierce Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. Franklin Pierce (1804-1869)/biography – Familypedia – Wikia

c. Franklin Pierce – Miller Center

313- RICHARD TREVITHICK.. .the first locomotive… constructed the world’s first steam railway locomotive (1803). In 1805 …

a. Richard Trevithick – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Richard Trevithick | English engineer | Britannica.com

c. Richard TrevithickThe American Society of Mechanical Engineers

314- JEAN  BAPTISTE CHARBONNEAU: 1805-1866AD… Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was an American explorer and military scout during the Mexican-American war…

a. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau – PBS

b. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau | San Diego History Center

c. .Jean Baptiste Charbonneau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

315- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS DICTATORSHIP?…

a. Dictatorship – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. dictatorship – Dictionary Definition : Vocabulary.com

c. . dictatorship | political science | Britannica.com

316- JOHN STUART MILL: 1806-1873AD…was a British philosopher and economist who is most famous for being a co-founder of Utilitarianism.

a. Spark Notes: John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)

b. Good and Evil – Renaissance

cJohn Stuart Mill – Utilitarian Philosophy

317- ROBERT E. LEE: 1807-1870AD…Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general during the American Civil War …

a. Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) – The Latin Library

b. Lee, Robert E. (ca. 1806–1870) – Encyclopedia Virginia

c. Robert E. Lee Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

318- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: 1807-1882AD…was an American poet and educator whose works include “Paul Revere’s Ride”, The Song …

a.Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 – The Online Books Page

b. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: A Maine Historical Society Web Site

c. About Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

319- JOHN DALTON… John Dalton introduces modern atomic theory…

a. John Dalton – Chemist, Scientist, Meteorologist – Biography.com

b. John Dalton and Atomic Theory – Boundless

c. Dalton’s atomic theory – Antoine

320- Andrew Johnson: 1808-1875AD…was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869…

a. Andrew Johnson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Andrew Johnson – U.S. President – Biography.com

c. Mr. Lincoln’s White House – Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)

321- EDGAR ALLEN POE: 1809-1849AD… was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry  …

a.Edgar Allan Poe, 1809-1849 – Documenting the American South

b. A short biography of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) – Poestories.com

c Edgar Allan Poe Was Born – America’s Library.

322- ABRAHAM LINCOLN: 1809-1865AD… the 16th U.S. president, on … Civil Rights Activist, U.S. Representative, U.S. President, Lawyer (1809–1865)…

a. Abraham Lincoln – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Abraham Lincoln Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c. Lincoln on Pinterest | Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln and

323- CHARLES DARWIN: 1809-1882AD…  introduce the theory of evolution to the scientific community…. Darwin’s On the Origin of Species…

a. Charles Darwin – Biologist, Scientist – Biography.com

b.Charles Darwin History – Theory of Evolution

c.Charles Darwin on Pinterest | Karl Marx, Isaac Newton and

324- LORD ALFRED TENNYSON: 1809-1892AD…was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria’s …

a. Alfred, Lord Tennyson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Alfred Lord Tennyson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c. Lord Alfred Tennyson | Academy of American Poets

325- JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK 1809AD …Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s Zoological Philosophy…

a. JeanBaptiste Lamarck – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Zoological Philosophy by JeanBaptiste Lamarck — Reviews

c.Jean Baptiste Lamarck – Encyclopedia.com

326- Theodor Rousseau: 1812-1867AD… was a French painter of the Barbizon school.

a.Théodore Rousseau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The Forest in Winter at Sunset – Metropolitan Museum of Art

c. Théodore Rousseau on artnet

327- CHARLES DICKENS: 1812-1870AD…was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world’s …

a. Charles Dickens – Author – Biography.com

b.Charles Dickens – The Literature Network

c. Full text of “The Dickens Student And Collector A List Of Writings

328- ROBERT BROWNING: 1812-1889AD…was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the …

a.Robert Browning – The Literature Network

b. Robert Browning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Robert Browning : The Poetry Foundation

329- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1812AD… THE MOSCOW CAMPAIGN…Napoleon’s determination to implement the Continental System had led him to …

a. Napoleon’s Moscow Campaign: 1812 – A Web of English History

b.French invasion of Russia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Napoleon’s Russian campaign: From the Niemen to Moscow

330- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1813AD…THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE…The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813…

a. The Battle of Lake Erie – Perry’s Victory & International Peace

b.The Battle of Lake Erie – Sep 10, 1813 – HISTORY.com

c. The Battle of Lake Erie – Perry’s Victory & International Peace

331- NAPOLEON 1815AD… With the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Papal States were restored once more. ….. 

a. Temporal power (papal) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Papal States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

. c. Napoleon and the Catholic Church – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

332- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1815-1825AD…WESTERN EUROPE AND THE HOLY ALLIANCE…

a. The Holy Alliance : Western Civilization II Guides

b. Holy Alliance – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Holy Alliance | Europe | Britannica.com

333- HENRY DAVID THOREAU: 1817-1862AD…writer, naturalist, philosopher, pencil maker, surveyor, Transcendentalist, inspector of …

a. Henry David Thoreau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Henry David Thoreau – Philosopher, Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

c.Henry David Thoreau Biography | List of Works, Study Guides

334- KARL MARX: 1818-1883AD…. thinker of the 19th century… Karl Marx – philosopher and writer of The Communist Manifesto…

a. Karl Marx (1818-1883) | Issue 102 | Philosophy Now

b.Karl Marx – died 1883AD – Philosophy – Winning-Teams.com

c.Karl Marx – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

335- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS COMMUNISM?…

a. What is communism? definition and meaning

b. What Is Communism? – YouTube

c. What Is Communism? | Socialism Communism Capitalism

336- MAJOR SUBJECT… WHAT IS ECONOMICS?…

a.What Is Macro Economics – Over 100 Million Visitors – Ask.com

b.What is Economics? – Why Study Economics

c. What is Economics? – YouTube

337- WALT WHITMAN: 1819-1892AD…an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition  …

a.Walt Whitman – Journalist, Poet – Biography.com

b. Contents. Whitman, Walt. 1900. Leaves of Grass – Bartleby.com

338- QUEEN VICTORIA: 1819-1901AD…was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death …

a.Queen Victoria – Britannia.com

b. BBC – iWonder – Queen Victoria: The woman who redefined Britain’s

c. HM Queen Victoria (1819-1901) – Museum Victoria Collections

339- FRIEDRICH ENGELS: 1820-1895AD…Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and political theorist

a.Friedrich Engels – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) | Heidi Rimke – Academia.edu

c.Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Philosoph und Unternehmer

340- SUSAN B. ANTHONY:1820-1906AD…was an American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffrage …

a. Susan B. Anthony House :: Her Story

b.Susan B. Anthony – Publisher, Civil Rights Activist, Editor, Women’s

c. Susan B. Anthony Quotes – Famous Quotes

341- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A PHILOSOPHER?…

a. What is Philosophy? / Undergraduate Program / Programs

b. Islamic philosophy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Philosopher | Define Philosopher at Dictionary.com

342- FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY: 1821-1881AD…Dostoyevsky’s literary works explore human psychology in the context of the …

a.Fyodor Dostoyevsky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Fyodor Dostoevsky (Dostoyevsky) | Crime and Punishment | The

c.Fyodor Dostoevsky Biography | List of Works, Study Guides

343- ULYSSES S. GRANT: 1822-1885AD…Ulysses S. Grant rose from command of an Illinois regiment to general-in-chief of all Union armies during the American Civil War …

a. Grant, Ulysses S. (1822–1885) – Encyclopedia Virginia

b. Ulysses S. Grant – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

c. Ulysses S. Grant | whitehouse.gov

344- RUTHERFORD B. HAYES: 1822-1893AD…was the 19th President of the United States (1877–81). As president, he oversaw the end of …

a. Rutherford B. Hayes – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b.Rutherford B. Hayes | whitehouse.gov

c.Rutherford B. Hayes Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

345- SPECIAL TOPIC…AMERICAN CIVIL WAR…widely known in the United States as  the Civil Wa fought from 1861 to 1865 to  …

a.American Civil War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.A Brief Overview of the American Civil War – Civil War Trust

c.American Civil War History – History Channel

346- JOSEPH FOURIER: 1822AD… Joseph Fourier’s analytical theory of heat is published…

a. The analytical theory of heat

b. Joseph Fourier – Atmospheric Chemistry Observations & Modeling

c. The Analytical Theory of Heat | work by Fourier | Britannica.com

347- LOUIS PASTEUR: 1822AD-1895AD… Louis Pasteur discovered two forms of tartaric acid crystals. Pasteur’s essay on fermentation founds the germ theory of disease.

a. Louis Pasteur Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. Louis Pasteur – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Louis Pasteur – Mini Biography – YouTube

348- SAMUEL BROWN: 1823AD… Samuel Brown begins production and sale of internal combustion engines…

a. Biography « Samuel M. Brown

b. Samuel L. Brown – University of Baltimore

c. Samuel Brown (engineer) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

349- GEORGE BOOLE: 1824AD …George Boole’s laws of thought… LAWS OF THOUGHT showed that logic is mathematical…

a. The Laws of Thought – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought: George Boole

c. George Boole (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

350- LEO TOLSTOY: 1828-1910AD…Leo Tolstoy was born in Tula Province, Russia. In the 1860s, he wrote his first great novel, War and Peace…

a.Leo Tolstoy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Leo Tolstoy – The Literature Network

c. Leo Tolstoy | Russian writer | Britannica.com

351- GEORGE STEPHENSON: 1828AD … Rocket steam locomotive…

a. Stephenson’sRocketlocomotive, 1829 – – Science Museum

b.Stephenson’s Rocket, The First Modern Steam Locomotive

c. George Stephenson’s First Steam Locomotive | History Today

352- JAMES M. CARROLL…1930 ..CURRENT…Chemist, News Paper Publisher, Insurance Salesperson, School Teacher, Author, writer, and book publisher, General Contractor, and Real Estate Broker……

a .Born out of the sun 2014

b. Mixturism

c. 3 steps to Success

d. Why We Dream

e. The Problem With Public Education

f. Words Every Good Reader Know

353- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1830-1857AD… THE CONQUEST OF ALGERIA…The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France…

a. French conquest of Algeria – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Algeria on the Eve of the French Conquest

c. French Algeria 1830-1962 – The Algerian Story – Sites – Google

354- EMILY DICKINSON: 1830-1886AD…Emily Dickinson was one of the most famous American poets known for her unique and unconventional style of writing. ..

a. Biography of Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

b. Emily Dickinson Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Emily Dickinson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

355- MICHAEL FARADAY: 1830AD Michael Faraday invents the dynamo. Faraday introduces the field concept…

a.Michael Faraday’s generator | The Royal Institution: Science Lives

b. Michael Faraday – Energy and kids – ESD – Bulgaria

c. Michael Faraday – Inventor of the Electric Motor – Inventors – About.com

356- JAMES C. MAXWELL: 1831-1879AD…Many physicists regard Maxwell as the 19th-century scientist having the greatest …

a.James C. Maxwell – Scholar, Physicist, Scientist – Biography.com

b.James Clerk MaxwellBiography, Facts and – Famous Scientists

.c James Clerk Maxwell – Encyclopedia.com

357- JAMES A. GARFIELD: 1831-1881AD…was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his …

a. James A. Garfield is born – Nov 19, 1831 – HISTORY.com

b. James A. Garfield – Miller Center

c.James A. Garfield Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

358- BENJAMIN HARRISON: 1833-1901AD…was the 23rd President of the United States (1889–93); he was the grandson of the ninth President …

a. Benjamin Harrison – U.S. President – Biography.com

b. Benjamin Harrison | whitehouse.gov

c.Benjamin Harrison Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

359- SAMUEL LONGHORN CLEMENS: 1835-1910AD… Mark Twain…better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He wrote …

a.Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) – Historic Missourians

b. Mark Twain – Writer – Biography.com

c. Diary of Adam and Eve | Celebrating Holidays

360-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?…

a.What is Psychology? | Simply Psychology

b.What Is Psychology? – About.com

c.BBC Science | Human Body & Mind | What is Psychology?

361- GROVER CLEVELAND: 1837-1908AD… was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States…

a. Grover Cleveland – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b. Grover Cleveland – Internet Public Library

c. Stephen] Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) | Princeton University Art

362- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1838AD…THE BEGINNING OF FREE TRADE…

a. Free trade – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Economic history: Why did The Economist favour free trade? | The

c. The History of “Free Trade” – Elegant Technology

363- JAMES J. HILL… 1838-1916AD…was “the last and greatest American railroad leader in the heroic era.” …

a. James J. Hill – – Biography.com

b.James J. Hill . Streamliners: America’s Lost Trains . WGBH American

c. James J. Hill Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

364- FRIEDRICH BESSEL: 1838AD… Friedrich Bessel measures the distance to star Cygnus…

a. Friedrich Bessel – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel | German astronomer | Britannica.com

c. 1838: Friedrich Bessel Measures Distance to a Star | Everyday

365- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1838/39AD… MATHIAS SCHLEIDEN AND THEODOR SCHWANN’S CELL THEORY OF LIFE…

a.Theodor Schwann Theorizes that All Living Things are Made of Cells

b.Theodor Schwann – Biography, Facts and Pictures – Famous Scientists

c.Matthias Jakob Schleiden – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

366- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1839-1860AD…THE OPENING OF CHINA… Nixon journeyed on an historic trip to China, meeting with Chairman Mao and Premier Chou En-lai…

a.The Opening to China Part I: the First Opium War, the United States

b.1972 Nixon visit to China – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Insights from Nixon’s visit to China

367- WILLIAM JAMES: 1842-1910AD…was America’s greatest psychologist, and became one of its great philosophers. In The Principles of Psychology (1890) he investigated …

a. William James (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. William James Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.William James (1842-1910) | Issue 105 | Philosophy Now

368- WILLIAM McKinley: 1843-1901AD…was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in …

a. William McKinley – U.S. President – Biography.com

b.William McKinley Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

c.William McKinley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

369- HENRY JAMES: 1843-1916AD…noted American-born English essayist, critic, and author of the realism movement wrote The Ambassadors (1903), The Turn of the  …

a. Henry James – The Literature Network

b.Henry James Biography | List of Works, Study Guides & Essays ..

c.Henry James Quotes – Famous Quotations By Henry James

370- HENRI ROUSSEAU: 1844-1910AD… was a French Post-Impressionist painter… 

a. Henri Rousseau – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Art by Henri Rousseau – Museum Syndicate

c. Rousseau, Henri – Biographical Dictionary – s9.com

371- SAMUEL F. B. MORSE: 1844AD… Samuel F.B. Morse’s pilot installation of an electric telegraph…

a. Samuel F.B. Morse | American artist and inventor | Britannica.com

b.Samuel F.B. Morse: Inventor of the Telegraph and Morse Code

c. Samuel F. B. Morse – Inventor – Biography.com

372- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1845-1847AD …THE DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE…

a. Northwest Passage – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Sir John Franklin: Fabled Arctic ship found – BBC News – BBC.com

c.Northwest Passage Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

373- ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL: 1847-1922AD…the Scottish-born American scientist best known as the inventor of the telephone…

a.Alexander Graham Bell – Educator, Scientist, Inventor, Linguist

b. lexander Graham Bell – Inventions – HISTORY.com

c. BBC – History – Alexander Graham Bell

374- THOMAS EDISON: 1847-1931AD…was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced …

a. Thomas Alva Edison, Inventor (1847 – 1931) – Genealogy – Geni

b.Thomas Alva Edison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c.Thomas Edison Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

375- HERMANN HELMHOLTZ: 1847AD…  achieved a staggering number of scientific results, including the formulation of energy conservation, the vortex equations for fluid …

a. Hermann von Helmholtz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

b. Hermann von Helmholtz – 9ways Academia

c. Lydia Patton, Hermann Von helmholtz – PhilPapers

376- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1847-1849AD…THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA…

a. 1848 California Gold Discovery – Coloma, California

b. The Discovery of GoldCalifornia History Collection

c. James Marshall: California’s Gold Discoverer | History Net: Where

377- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1848AD…THE FRENCH REVOLUTION…

a. French Revolution of 1848 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The French Revolution of 1848: History, Causes & Events – Study.com

c.French History Timeline – Soft Schools

378-SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS PROGRESSIVISM?…Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems… 

a. Progressive | Define Progressive at Dictionary.co

b. The Progressive Era (1890 – 1920)

c. What’s the Difference Between a Liberal and a Progressive?

379- WILLIAM RANKINE: 1850AD …William Rankine coins “energy” for Kraft; Rudolph Clausius founds thermodynamics, coins the term entropy…

a. William John Macquorn Rankine | Scottish engineer | Britannica.com

b. William John Macquorn Rankine – Encyclopedia.com

c. Geotechnical Engineering Hall of Fame: Rankine – EJGE

380- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS CONSERVATISM?…

a. conservatism | political philosophy | Britannica.com

b. What’s a Neoconservative? | The American Conservative

c. What are differences between a socialist, a democrat, a republican

381- WILLIAM THOMSON: 1851AD William Thomson proclaims the arrow of time… was an Irish mathematical physicist and engineer …

a.William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.William Thomson, Baron Kelvin | Scottish engineer, mathematician

c.BBC – History – Historic Figures: Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin

382- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1851AD…THE GREAT EXHIBITION…was the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It was organised by Henry Cole and Prince Albert…

a. The Great Exhibition – Victoria and Albert Museum

b. The Great Exhibition – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Interior of the Great Exhibition: 1851 – Museum of London Prints

383- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1853-1854AD …THE OPENING OF JAPAN…Commodore Perry was sent to Japan  … The treaty mandated that two Japanese ports be opened…

a. The United States and the Opening to Japan, 1853 – 1830–1860

b.Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854) | Asia for Educators ..

c.Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854) | Asia for Educators

384- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A COLLECTIVE MONOPOLY?.. fewer than ten corporations that control over ninety percent of a good or service in an industry..

a.. Mixturism

b. people power price control

385- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1854-1856AD…THE CRIMEAN WAR…war fought mainly on the … British and French fleets entered the Black Sea… 

a. Crimean War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Crimean War | Eurasian history [1853-1856] | Britannica.com

c. BBC – History – The Crimean War

386- OSCAR WILDE: 1854-1900AD…was an Irish playwright, novelist, essayist, and poet. After writing in different forms …

a. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)

b.Oscar Wilde – Writer – Biography.com

c. A Man of Culture: May 2011

387- WOODROW WILSON: 1856-1924AD…was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United  …

a.Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) – The George Washington University

b.BBC – History – Historic Figures: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)

c.Thomas Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States (1856

388- IGMUND FREUD: 1856-1939AD…The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis

a.Sigmund Freud – My Webspace files

b.The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis (1910) – DSpace@MIT

c. PSYCHOTHERAPY – Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Documentales

389- HENRY FORD: 1856-1943AD… Henry Ford and the Model T…Model T revolutionized transportation in America.

a.Henry Ford Model T Documentary Full video – YouTube

b. Henry Ford – Full Episode – Biography.com

c. Henry Ford – PBS

390- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS SLAVERY…Slavery is defined as “the condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership…

a. What is slavery? – Anti Slavery Australia

b. What is forced labour? – Anti Slavery Australia

c. Triangular Trade: Route, System & Role in Slavery – Video & Lesson

391- WILLIAM PERKIN: 1856AD…William Perkin discovers the first synthetic dye... From this modest beginning grew the highly …

a. William Henry Perkin | Chemical Heritage Foundation

b William Henry Perkin Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. Chemistry during the 19th Century ( 1801 A.D. – 1900 A.D.)

392- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1857AD… THE INDIAN MUTINY…By the year 1857 the British had established complete political control of India. 

a. Indian Mutiny | Indian history | Britannica.com

b. British India and the ‘Great Rebellion‘ – BBC

c. 57 stunning images from the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 – MSN.com

393- WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT: 1857-1930AD…was an American jurist and statesman who served as the 27th President of the United States …

a. William Howard Taft | whitehouse.gov

b. Biography of William Howard Taft

c.William Howard Taft Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

394- ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE: 1858AD .. essay on evolution by natural selection…

a. Alfred Russel Wallace – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace

c. Alfred Russel Wallace | British naturalist | Britannica.com

395- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS OPTIMISM?…The Optimist’s Creed… memorize it!…Promise Yourself. To be SO STRONG that nothing can disturb your peace of mind.

a.Positive psychology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Optimist Creed – Optimist International

c.The Optimist Creed (Tarcher Success Classics): Christian D. Larson

d. The Optimist Creed: Promise Yourself… – YouTube

396- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1861AD-1865AD… AMERICAN CIVIL WAR…widely known in the United States as simply the Civil … was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine…

a. American Civil War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Civil War Maps – Library of Congress

c.American Civil War 18611865YouTube

397- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1862AD… .MORRILL LAND GRANT ACT… triggers growth of engineering education in the U.S… was also known as the Land Grant College Act...

a. The Morrill Act of 1862

b. LandGrant College Act of 1862 | United States legislation ..

c. The Morrill Act and the LandGrant Colleges – University of Kentucky

398- MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?…the study of society; a social science involving the study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies…

a.What is Sociology? | Department of Sociology

b. American Sociological Association: What is Sociology?

c. An Introduction to Sociology – American Sociological Association

399- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863AD… THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES…Lincoln issued the final Emancipation … With the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation…

a. 10 Facts about the Emancipation Proclamation – Civil War Trust

b. Emancipation Proclamation – American Civil War – HISTORY.com

c.Featured Document: The Emancipation Proclamation

400- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863AD… THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.. Although the Battle of Gettysburg did not end the war, it was the great battle of …

a. Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War – HISTORY.com

b.Battle Of Gettysburg | History Net: Where History Comes Alive

c. The Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 – EyeWitness to History

401- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1863-1867AD… RISE AND FALL OF THE MEXICAN EMPIRE…

a. First Mexican Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Second Mexican Empire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Mexican Empire Will Rise To Challenge The USA – YouTube

402- WARREN G. HARDING: 1865-1923AD…was the 29th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1921 until his death...

a. Warren G. Harding – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b. Warren G. Harding | whitehouse.gov

c.Warren G. Harding – Government Official, U.S. Representative, U.S.

403- RUDYARD KIPLING: 1865-1936AD…one of the best-known of the late Victorian poets and story- tellers. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907.

a.Rudyard Kipling : The Poetry Foundation

b.Rudyard Kipling Analysis – eNotes.com

c.If By Rudyard Kipling – Lectura Obligada | Estado51PRUSA.co copy the poem IF and hang it on your wall…

404- GREGOR MENDEL: 1865AD.. Mendel publishes results of his researches…For decades after Gregor Mendel published his famous paper on inherited traits in 1865 AD, the field …

a. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

b.LAYER-DISSERTATION.PDF – Texas A&M University

c.La nascita della genetica, Mendel – Home page di Giampiero

405- JAMES CLERK MAXWELL: 1865AD… A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field…A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field [James Clerk Maxwell]…

a.A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field: James Clerk

b. Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field – Wikipedia, the

c.electromagnetism – What is reduced momentum in “A Dynamical

406- AUGUSTE KEKULE: 1865AD… Auguste Kekule announces the ring structure of the benzene molecule… and the birth of the structural theory of organic chemistry in 1858. …

a.August Kekulé – New World Encyclopedia

b. Friedrich August Kekulé – Chemistry Explained

c.August Kekule and the birth of the structural theory of organic

407- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1866AD… LAYING OF THE TRANSATLANTIC CABLE…The transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably…

a. Transatlantic telegraph cable – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. First transatlantic telegraph cable completed – Aug 05, 1858

. c.How the first cable was laid across the Atlantic (Wired UK)

408- H. G. WELLS: 1866-1946AD… Outline of History…

a. The Outline of History (2 Volumes): H.G. Wells, Raymond Postgate

b.The Outline of History: The Whole Story of Man (2 Volumes): H. G.

c. The Outline of History – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

409- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1867AD… ANESTHETICS AND ANTISEPTICS…Anesthetics are chemicals that makes a patient go unconscious and/or feel no pain. 

a. What are anesthetics and antiseptics – Answers.com

b.Antisepsis – used, first, anesthetic, blood, body, uses, history

c.BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Anesthetics for pain

410- WILBUR AND OLIVER WRIGHT: 1867-1912AD… First flight of and airplane…Wilbur and Orville Wright were American inventors and pioneers of aviation. In 1903 the… 

a. Wright Brothers – Inventions – HISTORY.com

b. The Wright Brothers – Biography.com

c. Wilbur and Orville Wright’s First Flight – America’s Library

411- MARIE CURIE: 1867-1934AD… Marie Curie names radioactivity, isolates polonium, and then radium…Marie and Piere Curie’s research led to the isolation of polonium…

a. Marie Curie | Biography | atomicarchive.com

b. Marie Curie | Biography | atomicarchive.com

c. Marie Curie – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

412- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1869AD…THE SUEZ CANAL…Egypt was the first country to dig a man-made canal across its lands to connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea…

a. Canal History – Suez Canal Authority

b. 9 Fascinating Facts About the Suez Canal – History in the Headlines

c. Suez Canal: History and Overview – Geography

413- MAHATMA GANDHI : 1869-1948AD…I know the path. It is straight and narrow. It is like the edge of a sword. I rejoice to walk on it. I weep when I slip. God’s word is…

a. Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) – Columbia University

b. I Know The Path – Mind of Mahatma Gandhi : Complete Book Online

c. Civilization V Leader | Gandhi of India – YouTube

414-MEXICAN– AMERICA WAR…1846-1848…Between 1846 and 1848, the United States and Mexico, went to war. It was a defining event for both nations…

a. The U.S.-Mexican War . War (1846-1848) | PBS

b. The U.S.-Mexican War | PBS

c.History of the War

415- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1870-1871ADFRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR , 1870–71, conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German…

a. FrancoPrussian War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. FrancoGerman War | European history | Britannica.com

c. The Franco Prussian War – International World History Project

416- VLADIMIR LENIN: 1870-1924A…Lenin was succeeded by Stalin after his death in 1924.

a. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924)

b. Time to Bury Lenin – The Catholic Thing

c. Vladimir Lenin – Alamy

417- SPANISH–AMERICA WAR…On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898.

a. SpanishAmerican War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Spanish Americans – Countries and Their Cultures

c. Spanish American War – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

418- GERTRUDE STEIN: 1874-1946AD…was a modern American writer.

a. Gertrude Stein – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Gertrude Stein : The Poetry Foundation

c.Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) – Georgetown University

419- HERBERT HOOVER: 1874-1964AD… Hoover  was the 31st President of the United States (1929–33)… a professional mining engineer and …Great Depression…

a. Herbert Hoover – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Herbert Hoover Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.President Herbert Hoover on TV! (1960) – YouTube

420- WINSTON CHURCHILL: 1874-1965AD…Although he is best known for his service as prime minister of Great Britain during World War 2, …

a.Museum Syndicate: Art by Winston Churchill

b. Winston Churchill – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

cWinston Churchill Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

421- HORACE MANNoften called the Father of the Common School, began his career … of Education in 1837, he used his position to enact major educational reform….

a.Horace Mann – PBS

b.Horace Mann | American educator | Britannica.com

c. Horace Mann, the End of Free-Market Education – Mackinac Center

422- KONRAD ADENAUER: 1876-1967AD…was the first chancellor of the German Federal Republic…

a. Konrad Adenauer: a pragmatic democrat and tireless unifier – Europa

b.Konrad Adenauer Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

c. Konrad Adenauer | The German Way & More

423- ROBERT KOCH 1877AD… isolates the cause of anthrax. Koch isolates tuberculosis bacterium. Koch isolates cholera bacterium…

a.Robert Koch – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Salt in Western New York: Retsof by Robert Koch

c. Glo Germ Classroom Kit Lessons – Educational Innovations

424- NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943 AD)the eccentric genius known as the ‘wild man of electronics’, was without doubt one of the greatest minds in history…

a. Nikola Tesla – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Nikola Tesla – Engineer, Inventor – Biography.com

c.Nikola Tesla (1856-1943 AD): Wireless Technology & Free Energy

425- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1878-1903AD… THE PONTIFICATION OF POPE LEO XIII…has seen the Catholic Church gain numbers and strength in America during his pontificate

a. Full text of “The life of Pope Leo XIII : containing a full and authentic

b. Leo XIII | pope | Britannica.com

c.Leo XIII Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles

426- JOSEPH STALIN: 1879-1953AD…was the second leader of the Soviet Union. …

a.Joseph Stalin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Joseph Stalin, 1879-1953 – The History Guide

c.Joseph Stalin – Dictator – Biography.com

427- ALBERT EINSTEIN: 1879-1955AD… Einstein’s “miracle year” of publication. Einstein’s general theory of relativity…

a.Albert Einstein – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. TOP 5 Scientists of the World – Employment News – Sarkari Naukri

c. Top 10 greatest Scientists who changed the world – EList10

428- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1881AD… THE RISE MAHDISM…The Mahdist Revolution was an Islamic revolt against the Egyptian government in the Sudan. 

a.Mahdist Revolution (1881-1898) | The Black Past: Remembered and

b.Mahdist Sudan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.THE DOCTRINE OF MAHDISM – MEMRI

429- MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK: 1881-1938AD… the founder of the Turkish Republic and its first President, stands as a towering figure of the 20th Century…

a.Mustafa Kemal Atatürk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK ( 1881-1938 ) – YouTube

c. M.Kemal ATATÜRK (1881-193∞) – Facebook

430- SPECIAL TOPIC… NATURE’S BASIC LAW OF ECONOMICS…There are only two kinds of resource : People and Natural …All goods and service flow from the action of people resources on natural resources…Money is a medium of exchange…

a. Mixturism…

b. Endowed with Democracy, an individual Bill Of Rights, and the

c. The Philosophy of Mixturism – Internet Free Press

431- PABLO PICASSO: 1881-1973AD..The artistic genius of Pablo Picasso has impacted the development of modern and contemporary art with unparalleled magnitude….

a.Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art

b. Pablo Picasso – Painter – Biography.com

c. Paintings On The Wall – Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) – Paul McCartney

432- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1882AD… ITALIAN COLONIZATION ON THE RED SEA…The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869…

a.Italian Colonization (1890-1941) – GlobalSecurity.org

b. Italian) Colonialism Did To My People Of (Eritrean) Kebessa – Awate

c. Political History of Eritrea before colonisation

433- JAMES JOYCE: 1882-1941AD…is one of Ireland’s most influential and celebrated writers. His most famous work is Ulysses (1922) which follows the movements of  …

a. James Joyce – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Life | The James Joyce Centre

c.A brief biographical account of James Joyce, with resources.

434- VIRGINIA WOOLF: 1882-1941AD…was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century...

a. Virginia Woolf – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Woolf, Virginia, 1882-1941: free web books, online

c.Woolf, Virginia (1882-1941) – British Library

435- FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT: 1882-1945AD…was the 32nd President of the United States of America...

a. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945)

b.F D Roosevelt Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

436- JOHN M. KEYNES: 1883-1946AD…was an English economist whose ideas fundamentally …

a. BBC – History – John Maynard Keynes

b. John Maynard Keynes – Career Timeline

c. John Maynard Keynes – Journalist, Economist – Biography.com

437- ELEANOR ROOSEVELT: 1884-1962AD…was an American politician, diplomat, and activist. She was the …

a. Eleanor Roosevelt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Eleanor Roosevelt – Diplomat, U.S. First Lady – Biography.com

c.Eleanor Roosevelt Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

438- HARRY S. TRUMAN: 1884-1972AD..He was Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s vice president for just 82 days before Roosevelt died and Truman ….

a. Truman: HST Biography – Harry S. Truman Library and Museum

b.Harry S. Truman – U.S. President – Biography.com

c. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Harry S Truman (1884-1972)

439- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1886AD… THE GREAT SIBERIAN RAILWAY…Private Train Journey from‎ Beijing through Mongolia to Moscow..

a. Great Siberian Railway – travelallrussia.com

b. How to plan & book a journey on the TransSiberian Railway

c. TransSiberian Railway – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

440- T. S. ELIOT: 1888-1965AD…T.S. Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1888. He published his first poetic masterpiece, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,”…

a. T.S. Eliot – Writer – Biography.com

b.A Man of Culture: American Poetry XXII – T.S. Eliot – The Hollow Men

c. A Man of Culture: American Poetry X – T.S. Eliot – The Love Song of J

441- ADOLF HITLER: 1889-1945AD…was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from …

a. Adolf Hitler – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945 – The History Guide

c.Adolf Hitler – Uncyclopedia – Wikia

442- JAWAHARIAL NEHRU: 1889-1964AD…was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, and had advocated for India’s release from British rule...

a. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)

b. Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889-1964) – King Encyclopedia

c. Nehru, Jawaharlal – Biographical Dictionary – s9.com

443- DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER: 1890-1969AD… as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 …

a. Dwight D. Eisenhower – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)

c.Dwight D. Eisenhower Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

444- CHARLES de GAULLE: 1890-1970AD…was a military leader and the 18th President of France. ..

a. Charles de Gaulle – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – History – Historic Figures: Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970)

c.Charles De Gaulle Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

445- AGATHA CHRISTIE: 1890-1976AD…Best known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, Agatha Christie’s books have sold over a billion copies …

a. Agatha Christie – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Agatha Christie – Author, Playwright – Biography.com

c. Agatha Christie Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

446- J. R. R. TOLKIEN: 1892-1973AD…was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who …

a. J. R. R. Tolkien – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.J. R. R. Tolkien – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. JRR Tolkien Biography – The Tolkien Society

447- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS THE INFINITESIMAL UNIFYING PARTICLE?…A discovery of the unifying infinitesimal particle and its relationship to the organization and behavior of all matter. Born Out. Of The Sun …

a. Born out of the sun 2014

448- ALDOUS HUXLEY: 1894-1963AD….. English novelist and critic, best known for his dystopian novel Brave New World (1931). Besides novels he published travel books, …

a. Aldous Huxley – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Aldous Huxley – The Literature Network

c.  Aldous Huxley Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

449- RICHARD BUCKMINSTER FULLER: 1895-1983AD…was a  inventor and visionary who did not limit himself to one field but worked as a ‘comprehensive..

a.Buckminster Fuller – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. .Richard Buckminster Fuller – Environmental Activist, Architect..

c.About Fuller | The Buckminster Fuller Institute

450- HENRI BECQUEREL: 1896AD… Discovery of the X-RAYS… discovers radioactivity…was using naturally fluorescent minerals to study the properties of xrays… 

a. The Discovery of Radioactivity

b. Henri Becquerel – Facts – Nobelprize.org

c.Benchmarks: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity on February ..

451- GUGLIELMO MARCONI: 1896AD…  introduces telegraphy “without wires.”…Nobel Prize-winning physicist… Guglielmo Marconi developed the first effective system of radio …

a. Guglielmo Marconi – Inventions – HISTORY.com

b. Guglielmo Marconi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Guglielmo Marconi – Physicist, Inventor, Entrepreneur – Biography.com

452- F. SCOTT FITZGERALD… 1896-1940AD… was an American novelist and short story writer, whose works are the paradigmatic …

a.F. Scott Fitzgerald – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.and short story writer, whose works are the paradigmatic …

c.F. Scott Fitzgerald – Author – Biography.com

453-MAJOR SUBJECT…WHAT IS ASTRONOMY?…astronomy is the study of the sun, moon, stars, planets and other objects and phenomena in space. It has a long, rich history...

a.What are Science and Astronomy

bAstronomy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.  Astronomy – Introduction and History of the Study of Stars

454- WILLIAM FAULKNER: 1897-1962AD…was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi...

a. William Faulkner – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

b.William Faulkner – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c. William Faulkner – Author – Biography.com

455- J .J. THOMPSON: 1897AD… J.J. Thompson discovers the electron…

a. Joseph John Thomson | Chemical Heritage Foundation

b. Cambridge Physics – Discovery of the Electron

c. Discovery of the Electron – PBS

456- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1898AD …THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO…The Battle of Santiago de Cuba, fought between Spain and the United States on July 3, 1898…

a. Battle of Santiago – Spanish American War

b. Battle of Santiago | Spanish-American War | Britannica.com

c. BATTLE OF SANTIAGO | OFFICIAL WEBSITE

457- SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DO SEARCH ENGINES WORK?…There are three basic stages for a search engine: crawling – where content is discovered; indexing, …

a. How Search Engines Work – The Beginners Guide to SEO – Moz

b BBC Bitesize – How do search engines work?

c. How Search Works – The Story – Inside Search – Google

dHow Do Search Engines Work? – YouTube

458-SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DO COMPUTERS WORK?…

a.How Computers Work: Information (Part I) – YouTube

b.Computer – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Computer science – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

459- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1919AD… THE PEACE CONFERENCE…The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the Allied victors…

a. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Paris Peace Conference – Office of the Historian

c. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

460- SPECIAL TOPIC…HOW DOES THE INTERNET WORK?..The Internet lets you transfer information around the world in seconds. How does all that data get where… 

a. How does the Internet work? | HowStuffWorks

b. BBC Bitesize – How does the internet work?

c. How Does the Internet Work ? – YouTube

461- ERNEST HEMINGWAY: 1899-1961AD…was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His economical and understated style had a …

a. Ernest Hemingway – Author – Biography.com

b. Ernest Hemingway – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c.Ernest Hemingway Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

462- LEO STRAUSS: 1899-1973AD…was a German-Jewish philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy...

a. The Leo Strauss Center: Promoting the Study of Leo Strauss’s Thought

b.Reading Leo Strauss – University of Chicago Press

c.Leo Strauss – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

463- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1900AD…THE BOXER MOVEMENT…officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China…

a. Boxer Rebellion – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b. Boxer Rebellion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Boxer Rebellion | Chinese history | Britannica.com

464- HUGO de VRIES: 1900AD……was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the …

a. Hugo de Vries :: DNA from the Beginning

b. Hugo de Vries | Dutch botanist and geneticist | Britannica.com

c. Hugo de Vries – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

465- MAX PLANCK: 1900AD… Max Planck’s quantum hypothesis…a German theoretical physicist whose work on quantum …

a. Max Planck – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

b. Max Planck – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c.Welcome to…the history of the atom. – Angelfire

466- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1902AD…THECORONATIONOF KING EDWARD…The coronation of Edward VII and his wife Alexandra as King and Queen of the United Kingdom…

a.oronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra – Wikipedia

b. Edward VII – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Coronation Of Edward Vii (1902) – YouTube

467- JOHN STEINBECK: 1902-1968AD…. was an American author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction…

a.John Steinbeck – Author – Biography.com

b. John Steinbeck – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c John Steinbeck (1902-1968) – Georgetown University

468- GEORGE ORWELL: 1903-1950AD… Orwell felt that political action and political speech were necessary in order to live a life of integrity and honor.

a.Why did George Orwell write Animal Farm? – eNotes.com

b. Why did George Orwell write Animal Farm? – eNotes.com

c. SparkNotes: Animal Farm: Context

469- WILLIAM BATESON: 1903AD… was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity , …

a. William Bateson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. William Bateson (1861-1926) :: DNA Learning Center

c.William Bateson | British biologist | Britannica.com

470-SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS JUDGEMENT…the ability to judge, make a decision, or form an opinion objectively, authoritatively, and wisely, especially in matters…

a.Judgment | Definition of Judgment by Merriam-Webster

b.Judgment | Definition of Judgment by Merriam-Webster

c. Judgement – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

471- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1904AD… BUICK AUTOMOBILE… In the summer of 1904, the company built the first Flint Buick. … Buick began production with the Model B…

a. Buick Heritage Alliance (BHA) – Buick Motor Division History

b. History & Heritage of Buick

c.BUICK models & history – Auto Evolution

472- JEAN–PAUL SARTRE: 1905-1980AD…focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as existentialism...

a.JeanPaul Sartre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia… 

b. JeanPaul Sartre – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

c.Sartre, Jean Paul: Existentialism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

473- AYN RAND: 1905-1982AD… the author of The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, both of which promote …

a. The Liberal Institute: Proto-Liberal Intellectuals

b. Ayn Rand – Writer – Biography.com

c. The Greatest Philosophers (Chronological) | Listology

474- SALVADOR ALLENDE: 1908-1973AD…became Chile’s first socialist president in 1970 before committing suicide during a 1973 military coup. … Presid

a. Salvador Allende – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Salvador Allende – President (non-U.S.) – Biography.com

c. Salvador Allende | president of Chile | Britannica.com

475- LYNDON  B. JOHNSON: 1908-1973AD… became the 36th president of the United States …. He died of a heart attack at age 64 on January 22, 1973, at his ranch.

a.Lyndon B. Johnson – U.S. Presidents – HISTORY.com

b.President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Biography – LBJ Presidential Library

c.Lyndon Baines Johnson (19081973) < Biographies < American

476- MOTHER TERESA: 1910-1997AD…The famous missionary to India, Mother Teresa (1910-1997 AD) valued silence as necessary to hear the voice of God. ..

a.Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta

b.Loose Lips Sink Ships – Official Regent University Blogs

c.All through her life, Mother Teresa served people selflessly. Read

477- THOMAS HUNT MORGAN: 1910AD… Thomas Hunt Morgan localizes the “gene” for fruit-fly eye color…

a. Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University

b.Thomas Hunt Morgan :: DNA from the Beginning

c. Thomas Hunt Morgan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

478- ERNEST RUTHERFORD: 1910AD …Ernest Rutherford’s Solar System model of the atom…

a.Ernest Rutherford – Biographical – Nobelprize.org

b.Ernest Rutherford – Physicist, Scientist – Biography.com

c. Ernest Rutherford | Chemical Heritage Foundation.

479- RONALD REAGAN: 1911-2004AD…Former President Ronald Reagan, whose movie-actor delivery and warm wit earned him the name...

a. Ronald Reagan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. President Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911 – 2004) – Genealogy – Geni

c. with over 150 million profiles of ancestors and living …

 

480- HENRIETTA  LEAVITT  SWANN: 1912AD… Henrietta Leavitt Swann’s variable-star cosmic “ruler.”

a 1912: Henrietta Leavitt Discovers the Distance Key | Everyday

b. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Henrietta Leavitt – PBS

c.A Science Odyssey: Then+Now: Physics and Astronomy – PBS

481- RICHARD NIXON: 1913-1994AD…President Nixon had been secretly recording ..led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon

a. Richard Nixon Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b.Richard Nixon – Wikipedia

c. Richard Milhous Nixon (1913 – 1994) – Find A Grave Memorial

482-  ROSA PARKS: 1913-2005AD…was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called ” the …

a. Rosa Parks – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Parks, Rosa (1913-2005) – King Encyclopedia

c.Parks, Rosa (1913-2005) | The Black Past: Remembered and

483- GERALD FORD: 1913-2006AD… was the President of the United States from 1974 to 1977. …

a.Gerald Ford – Wikipedia

b. Gerald Ford – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi

c. Gerald Ford – Wikipedia

484- WORLD WAR ONE 1914…WWI may have been the war to end all wars, but it was also the beginning of many military … By the time World War I ended in the defeat…

a.World War I – History Channel

b. World War One – The British Library

c. World War I – Battles, Facts, Videos & Pictures – History.com

485- NIELS BOHR: 1913AD… Niels Bohr’s quantum theory…When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light quantum is emitted. Bohr’s theory could explain… w

a. Niels Bohr – Facts – Nobel prize.org

b. Bohr model – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Niels Bohr: Biography & Atomic Theory – LiveScience

486- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1941AD…WORLD WAR II…World War II In HD Colour is a 13-episode television documentary series … The United States

 

a.SCENARIO: “World War II – 1941 AD” on the complete world map for

b.WWII – The Battle For Russia 1941 AD – Part 2 of 12 – In HD – YouTube

c.SCENARIO: “World War II – 1941 AD” for C3C on the complete world

487- JOHN F. KENNEDY: 1917-1963AD…was the 35th President of the United States. This biography … Born on. 29 May 1917 AD. Birthday … 22 November 1963 AD.

a. John F. Kennedy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Sr. (1917 – 1963) – Genealogy – Geni

c. John F. Kennedy – Biographical Dictionary – s9.com

488-  INDIRA GANDHI: 1917-1984AD…One of the strongest political leaders of Independent India, Indira Gandhi was the first woman to hold the office … 

a.Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – The 25 Most Powerful Women of – Time

b. Indira Gandhi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Manas: History and Politics, Indira Gandhi

489- NELSON MANDELA: 1918-2013AD…whose activism made him a central figure in ending apartheid in South Africa, went from a prisoner to president in his lifetime...

a.Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 – The Atlantic

b. Nelson Mandela Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c. Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 – The Atlantic

490- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1950AD …KOREAN WAR… began as a civil war between North and South Korea, but the conflict soon became international when…u

a.Korean War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Korean War – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

c.Douglas MacArthur – Facts & SummaryHISTORY.com

491- EVA PERON: 1919-1952AD…was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (1895–1974) and served as the First Lady of …

a. Eva Perón – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Eva “EvitaPerón: 1919–1952: Political Leader Biography – Worked

c. Evita Peron – Dittatori e regimi

492- POPE JOHN PAUL II: 1920-2005AD…The most traveled pope in history. During his papacy he has issued many letters …

a. Pope John Paul II – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.St. John Paul the Great icon by Theophilia on DeviantArt

c. Catholic Authorities Teach Theosis | New God Argument

493- EDWIN HUBBLE ..Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 – 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial  in establishing the field …announces that Andromeda is a galaxy. …

a.Edwin Hubble – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Edwin Powell Hubble – The man who discovered the cosmos | ESA

c.Edwin Hubble – Astronomer, Scientist – Biography.com

494- GEORGE H. W. BUSH: 1924AD-current… President of the United States…

a. George H. W. Bush – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. George H.W. Bush tweets health update – CNNPolitics.com – CNN.com

c. BANNED INTERVIEW with George Bush Jr. US PresidentYouTube

495- JIMMY CARTER: 1924AD-current… In a remarkable press conference marked by grace and devoid of self-pity, former President Jimmy Carter said Thursday that four spots of …

a. Jimmy Carter’s Doing Well on Cancer Treatment – NBC News

b.Jimmy Carter cancer: Melanoma on the brain – CNNPolitics.com

c. Jimmy Carter, American Superhero – The Daily Beast

496- MALCOLM X: 1925-1965AD… most visible proponent of Black Nationalism, Malcolm X’s challenge to the multiracial, nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King, Jr., helped set …

a. Malcolm X (1925-1965) – King Encyclopedia

b.Malcolm X (1925-1965) | The Black Past: Remembered and

c. Malcolm X Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

497-  MARGARET THATCHER: 1925-2013AD…The first female prime minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher was a controversial …

a.Margaret Thatcher – British History – HISTORY.com

b.Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) – Margaret Thatcher Foundation

c.Margaret Thatcher Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

498- HEISENBERG SCHRODINGER: 1925AD Heisenberg and Schrodinger found quantum mechanics. Heisenberg uncertainty principle; Statistical interpretation of…

a. Heisenberg / Uncertainty Principle – American Institute of Physics

b. Heisenberg and Schrödinger get pulled over for speeding. : Jokes

c. Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg devise a quantum

499- MARTIN LUTHER KING: 1929-1968AD…was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil …

a. Martin Luther King, Jr. – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Major King Events Chronology: 1929-1968 | The Martin Luther King

c. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) | New Georgia Encyclopedia

500- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1929AD-1939AD …GREAT DEPRESSION…The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took …… 

a. The Great Depression – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

b.Great Depression – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

cThe Great Depression . Surviving the Dust Bowl . WGBH American

501- BORIS YELTSIN: 1931-2007AD…The first president of post-Soviet Russia, Boris Yeltsin, died on April 23 in a Moscow hospital of heart failure at the age of 76. He will go down in …

a Boris Yeltsin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Boris Yeltsin | president of Russia | Britannica.com

c Boris Yeltsin Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline.

502- MIKHAIL GORBACHEV: 1931AD-current…a Nobel Peace Prize winner, is one of the notable leaders of former Soviet Union…

a .Mikhail Gorbachev – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Mikhail Gorbachev Fast Facts – CNN.com

c.Mikhail Gorbachev Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements

503- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1931AD… ELECTRON MICROSCOPE IS INVENTED…First virus “seen” using the electron microscope…

a.Microscopes Projection – Powerful 5000x Zoom Microscopes

b. Electron Microscopes – tescan-usa.com

c. Scan Electron Microscope – webcrawler.com

504- KARL JANSKY: 1935AD .. was an American physicist and radio engineer who in August 1931 first discovered radio waves ….

a Karl Jansky – National Radio Astronomy Observatory

b. Karl Guthe Jansky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Karl Jansky Father of Radio Astronomy | Astronotes

505- ALAN TURING: 1936AD…was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, crypt analyst and … Alan Turing publishes his principle …

a. Alan Turing – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. BBC – iWonder – Alan Turing: Creator of modern computing

c. A History of Computers

506- HARRY S.TRUMAN…1884-1972…was the 33rd President of the United States … Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949. ….. 

a. Truman: HST Biography – Harry S. Truman Library and Museum

b. Harry S. Truman | whitehouse.gov

c. Harry S. Truman – U.S. President – Biography.com

507-UNITED NATIONS…The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The mission and work of the …

a. About the UN | United Nations

b. UN Careers

c. United Nations Foundation

508- WARREN WEAVER: 1938AD …was an American scientist, mathematician, and science administrator … coins the term molecular biology…

a.Warren Weaver – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. WARREN WEAVER – National Academy of Sciences

c. Computer Pioneers – Warren Weaver – History Committee archive

509- LEE HARVEY OSWALD: 1939-1963AD…was an American sniper who assassinated President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963...

a. Lee Harvey Oswald – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Lee Harvey Oswald – Spartacus Educational

c.Lee Harvey Oswald Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

510- EVENTS/IDEA- VIETNAM WAR…also known as the Second Indochina War, and also known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against …

a. Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Role of the United States in the Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free

c.Vietnam War – A Day in Vietnam | 1967 | American Cold YouTube

511- EVENTS/IDEAS: NATO.. is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member… countries…

a. NATO – Member countries

b.What is NATO?

c. NATO – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

512- EVENT: COLD WAR…. 1945-1989… was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc..

a. Cold War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Cold War – Causes, Events, Pictures & Videos – History.com

c.Cold War – History Channel ..

513-RONALD REAGAN..12911-2004…President Jimmy Carter congratulates Ronald Reagan, the new president ……

a. President Ronald Reagan Timeline

b. Presidency of Ronald Reagan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. The Best of Ronald ReaganYouTube

514- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1945AD…FIRST ATOMIC BOMB… Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on Aug 06, 1945…

a.Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – Aug 06, 1945 – HISTORY.com

b.Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – World War II – HISTORY.com

c.Atomic Bomb | HISTORY

515- GEORGE H. W. BUSH: 1924AD-current…41st President of the United States (1989–1993), 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–1989); Director of the CIA …

a. George H. W. BushWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Electoral history of George H. W. BushWikipedia, the free

c. The Hidden Hard-line Side of George H.W. Bush – Politico

516- BILL CLINTON: 1946AD-current… is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United …

a.Bill Clinton – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bill Clinton: Life After the Presidency—Miller Center

c.Bill Clinton: Biography, College, Education, Economy YouTube

517- EVENTS/IDEAS:  BELL LABS…1947AD… The Bell Labs work on the transistor emerged from war-time efforts to produce extremely pure germanium …

a. An Outline of the History of the Transistor – PBS

b. Bell System Memorial- Bell Labs (Who Really Invented The

c. World’s First Transistor Invented by Bell Telephone Laboratories

518- GEORGE GAMOW: 1947-49AD… and colleagues propose the Big Bang Theory….

a.George Gamow, Gifted Physicist – YouTube

b.George GamowWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Edward Teller – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

519- JAMES M. CARROLL..1930-CURRENT..James M. Carroll. A discovery of the unifying infinitesimal particle and its relationship to the organization and behavior of all matter. Born Out Of The Sun 1998…

a. Born out of the sun 2014

b. Born out of the sun 2014

c. Born out of the sun 2014

520- CLAUDE SHANNON: 1948AD … about the branch of computer science and mathematics…The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in computer… 

a. Information theory – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Theoretical computer science – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Claude Shannon: Reluctant Father of the Digital Age | MIT

521- WATSON AND CRICK: 1953AD …Watson and Crick announce the double-helix structure of DNA…

a.Watson and Crick discover chemical structure of DNA – Feb 28, 1953

b.Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA – PBS

c. Jacob’s Stick (Genesis 30: 37-41) – Teachinghearts

522- STEVE JOBS: 1955-2011AD…was an American information technology entrepreneur and inventor…

a. Steve JobsWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Steve Jobs Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

c.Steve Jobs‘ most inspiring Speech !! – YouTube

523- TIM BURNERS-LEE: 1955AD-current… introduces the World Wide Web…In March 1989, Tim BernersLee submitted a proposal for an information…

a. Tim BernersLee – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Tim BernersLee – World Wide Web @ 25 – YouTube

c. How the World Wide Web just happened – Tim Berners-Lee – YouTube

524- BILL GATES: 1955AD-current…an American business magnate, philanthropist, investor, and computer programmer. In 1975, Gates and  …

a.Bill Gates – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Bill Gates – Business Leader, Entrepreneur, Philanthropist

c.Life Story of Bill Gates – Documentary – YouTube

525- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1956AD…DARTMOUTH CONFERENCE… on artificial intelligence…propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence

a. Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence (AI) Conference – Internet

b. The Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference: The next 50 years

c.Dartmouth Conferences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

526- EVENTS/IDEAS: SPUTNIK I 1957AD…orbits the Earth…Sputnik launched on Oct 04, 1957. … its elliptical orbit had an apogee of 584 miles and a perigee (nearest point) …

a. Sputnik 1 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Sputnik – NASA’s History Office

c. Sputnik launched – Oct 04, 1957 – HISTORY.com

527- JACK KIRBY AND ROBERT NOYCE: 1958AD… Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments patented the principle of integration …invent the integrated circuit…. 

a. Integrated Circuit – History of Computers

b. Robert Noyce – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. History of Computing – Computer Science & Engineering

528- JAMES L. CLAYTON…1934-CURRENT…SUCCESS STORY…Tennessee cotton picker to Wall Street…Mobile Home King, banker, country music singer, lawyer, engineer, pilot, TV host, philanthropist…

a. Trailer King – Forbes

b. Clayton Bank and Trust | Board of Directors

c. MidCountry Financial | James L Clayton

d. Clayton Homes Inc Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com

e. Ocwen and the Golden Rule Lessons that Paid off for Clayton Homes
529- SPECIAL TOPIC…WHAT IS A REPUBLIC is a sovereign state or country which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals …

a.Republic vs. Democracy – 1215.org

b.What is Democracy? – YouTube

c An Important Distinction: Democracy versus Republic – LEXREX.com

530- PENZIAS AND WILSON: 1963AD… detect microwave background radiation…Bell Labs radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were using…

a. rno Penzias and Robert Wilson – Bell Labs, Holmdel, NJ

b.Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation – PBS

c Discovery of Cosmic Background Radiation – HyperPhysics.

531- EDWARD LORENZ: 1963AD…was an American mathematician, meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory…

a.Edward Norton Lorenz – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.Edward Norton Lorenz – Publications – MIT

c.Edward Lorenz, father of chaos theory and butterfly effect, dies at 90

532- MURRAY GELL-MANN AND GEORGE ZWEIG: 1964AD… found quantum chromodynamics…George Zweig giving a speech at Department of Physics…  ..

a. Modern Particle Theory timeline – CERN

b George Zweig – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Fifty years of quarks | CERN

533- NEIL ARMSTRONG: 1969AD… walks on the Moon…“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon. July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind.” …

a. Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the – BrainyQuote

b.Neil Armstrong photographed just minutes after becoming the first

c.Armstrong walks on moon – Jul 20, 1969 – HISTORY.com

534- EVENTS/IDEAS: ARPANet 1971AD … first test of, leading to the Internet in the 1990s. Electro-weak unification wins acceptance…

a. History of Computing – Computer Science & Engineering

b. Introduction to Computer Science Emergence of Modern Computer

c.History of computers – Modern – SlideShare

535- EVENTS/IDEAS: RECOMBINANT DNA:1972AD … research begins… Recombinant DNA technology, joining together of DNA molecules from two different species…

a. Recombinant DNA – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. recombinant DNA technology | genetics | Britannica.com

c.An Introduction to Recombinant DNA

536- EVENTS/IDEAS: PDP-8. 1973AD… Although some people consider the CDC 160 the first minicomputer, the PDP8 was the definitive minicomputer… 

a. Online PDP8 Home Page

b.PDP8 Document Search Results – Online PDP8

c. Doug Jones’s DEC PDP8 FAQs – University of Iowa

537- ALAN GUTH: 1980AD…  a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, known mainly for his work on elementary particle theory and how particle theory is applicable to…

a.Alan Guth – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Alan Guth – Important Scientists – The Physics of the Universe

c.Alan Guth: Waiting for the Big Bang | Innovators

538- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1981 AD IBM PC… is introduced…personal computers were available as early as the mid-1970s, first as … IBM’s own Personal Computer …(

a. IBM Archives: The birth of the IBM PC

b.Timeline of Computer History: 1981 | Computer History Museum

c. Timeline of Computer History: 1981 | Computer History Museum

539- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1984 AD…STRING THEORY… becomes “respectable” in physics…String theory emerged in the late 1960s as a candidate for..

a. History of string theory – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. The First Revolution | Why String Theory

c. The Early Years of String Theory – Aspen Center for Physics

540- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1989 AD… DISINTEGRATION OF THE SOVIET UNION…

a. The Collapse of the Soviet Union1989–1992 – Milestones – Office

b. Dissolution of the Soviet Union – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Fall of the Soviet Union – Cold War – HISTORY.com

541- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1990 AD…HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE… launched into orbit…Hubble Space Telescope’s launch in 1990 sped humanity to one of its greatest…

a. Hubble Site – The TelescopeHubble Essentials

b.About the Hubble Space Telescope | NASA

c. 10 Fascinating Facts About the Hubble Space Telescope – History in

542- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1995 AD…SIXTH QUARK… called “top,” discovered…There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom. … 

a. Top quark – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b.The sixth quark: Top marks – Nature

c. top quark | physics | Britannica.com

543- EVENTS/IDEAS: 1998 AD… DARK ENERGY PROPOSED…Dark energy was discovered in 1998 with this method by two international teams that included…

a. Dark energy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. dark energy | astronomy | Britannica.com

c. A ‘Speedy’ Discovery – Dark Energy – HETDEX

544- EVENTS/IDEAS: 2000 AD…HUMAN GENOME DECODED… initial rough draft of the human genome was available in June 2000 and by February …

a. Human Genome Sequencing – 3730xl, Ion Torrent, Illumina

b. Human Genome Project – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome : Article : Nature

545- EVENT… FIRST GULF WAR BUSH I…1990-1991…The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War…

a. Gulf WarWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. Persian Gulf War | 1990-1991 | Britannica.com

c. Highway of Death – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

546- AL-QAEDA..SEPTEMBER 11,2001…After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, alQaeda (or al-Qa’ida, pronounced al-KYE-da) surpassed the IRA, Hamas…

a. AlQaeda – Infoplease

b.AlQaida / AlQaeda (The Base) – GlobalSecurity.org

c. Who Is Bin Laden? – Al Qaeda | Hunting Bin Laden | FRONTLINE

547- .AFGHANISTAN. WAR USA  BUSH II…Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country’s strategic location along the Silk Road

a. Afghanistan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

b. President Bush announces military action in Afghanistan – Oct 07

c. War in Afghanistan (2001–14) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

548- IRAQ WAR BUSH II.. 2003-2011…Bush was allegedly floating the idea of painting a U‑2 spy plane in UN colors and letting it fly low ….

a. Iraq War | 2003-2011 | Britannica.com

b. Iraq War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c. 2003 invasion of Iraq – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

549- EVENT..WHO IS ISIS?…The Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq  follows a distinctive variety of Islam whose beliefs about the path to the Day of …

a. ISIS: Everything you need to know about the group – CNN.com

b.What ISIS Really Wants – The Atlantic

c.What is ‘Islamic State’? – BBC News – BBC.com

d. Everything you need to know about ISIS | MSNBC

550- BARACK OBAMA: 1961AD-current…Barack Obama is the 44th and current President of the United States. This biography of Barack Obama provides detailed information…  …

a. Barack Obama Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline

b. President Barack Obama | whitehouse.gov

c. Is the State of Hawaii Covering Up Birth Registration Fraud in the ..

551- SPECIAL TOPIC… HISTORY OF AFRICA…AFRO- AMERICANS…SCIENCE AND MUSIC…

a.History of AfricaYouTube

b.History of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

c.Economic history of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. Outline of AfricaWikipedia, the free encyclopedia

e. Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa

f. AfricansContribution to Science: A Culture of Excellence

g. African Science in School Curriculum – African Studies Center

h. List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars – Wikipedia, the free

i. Some) of Africa’s Scientific Discoveries & Contributions | Believing

j. Africa’s contribution to science and technology | ¡Ya Basta! Media

k.African-American Contributions to Mathematics and Science

l .African Americans contribute much to the field of Science | African

m.List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars – Wikipedia, the free

n. Greatest Africans of All Times – Emeagwali

o. Famous Black Scientists – Biography.cop.

p.15 Famous Black Scientists in History – Famous Scientists

q. 10 Black Scientists You Should Know | HowStuffWorks

r. South African heroes of science – SA scientists and inventors

s. The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences.

u. Top 10 African Music You Can’t Stop Singing – Answers Africa

v.Afrobeats: The new sound of West Africa that’s going global – CNN

w. Top 10 Best Music Producer In Nigeria – GY

x.African American Music Evolution Timeline – YouTube

y.730 The Movie – YouTube

z.15-Yr-Old Kelvin Doe Wows M.I.T. – YouTube

552- SPECIAL TOPIC…2016…HOW DOES AN EMAIL SEVER WORK?…email server is a computer that serves as an electronic post office for email. ..

a. How your email server worksYouTube

b.How email worksYouTubec. Message transfer agent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

553-SPECIAL TOPIC… WHAT IS HUMANISM?…

a.What Is Humanism – American Humanist Association

b.Exploring the Idea of Humanism – American Humanist Association

c.Humanism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d.Humanism Intro Part 1 – ‘Humanism‘ Richard Dawkins YouTube

554- WHAT IS LOGIC?…

a.What is Logic? – Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript

b.Logic – By Branch / Doctrine – The Basics of Philosophy

c.What is logic and why do philosophers study it?

555- HOW TO REFORM THE STOCK MARKET…

a.Mixturism

b.Mixturism

c.Mixturism

556- WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING?…

a.What is Critical Thinking? – Definition, Skills & Meaning – Video

b.What is Critical Thinking – Critical Reading

c.Critical thinking – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d. How to Write an A+ Research Paper – A Research Guide for Students

NOW THAT YOU HAVE FINISHED ALL OF THE LESSONS, SELECT A MAJOR  SUBJECT AND LEARN EVERYTHING FROM A TO Z ABOUT IT;  AND THEN WRITE A RESEARCH PAPER SHOWING THAT YOU DO KNOW ALL THE BASIC FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPALS ABOUT YOUR MAJOR SUBJECT. YOU WILL GET YOUR DEGREE.

THE PERSON WHOSE NAME IS ON A COLLEGE DEGREE FROM DIGITAL UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA  KNOWS A LOT ABOUT EVERYTHING FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE TO THE PRESENT AND KNOWS MUCH MORE  FROM A TO Z  ABOUT THEIR MAJOR SUBJECT.

COPYRIGHT 2015 by JAMES M. CARROLL and DIGITAL UNIVERSITY of AMERICA…ALL RIGHTS RESERVED…This Web Site may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without permission. internetfreepress.com. 

Mixturism

3 steps to Success

Why We Dream

The Problem With Public Education

Words Every Good Reader Knows

Born out of the sun 2014

Mixturism

3 steps to Success

Why We Dream

The Problem With Public Educa

 

SAMPLE  ESSAY ON HOMER

Homer was an alleged blind Ancient Greek, famous for having written the classic, the Iliad and the Odyssey and is given credit for being the first and the greatest of the epic poets.

There is, however, some question as to whether he lived at all. Some believe he was only a mythical character. And if he indeed did live, there is some doubt about his having been the author of those two works. But Herodotus, the Greek historian, lent credence to his existence and in fact placed his birth at around 1,100 BCE.

Plato, another Ancient Greek philosopher wrote that Homer was the “”first teacher” and a “leader of Greek culture”.

Fifty percent of Homer’s contributions are in the form of speeches, which deal with the methods for persuading others through effective speaking and writing.  This advice spread throughout the medieval world and his methodology was practiced by many.

Sixth and fifth century Greeks attribute other works to Homer as well, affirming that he embodied the whole body of hexameter verse. This compendium included poems about the Trojan War, the Nostoi, the Cypria and the Epigoni. He also supposedly wrote the Theban poems which recounted stories of Oedipus and his sons.

It wasn’t until 350 BCE, that scholars agreed that Homer had indeed written the two epics, the Lliad and the Odyssey. They also concurred that these works had undergone “refinement and standardization “.

Homer in his writings used an archaic version of Ionic Greek as well as other dialects.

In what is called “”late antiquity”, Latin swept over western Europe and interest and knowledge of Ancient Greece declined.

But in the late 1,400’’s AD, interest was revived and Homer’s works were once again being read and taught in Italy, especially.

The first printed version appeared in 1488, shortly after the invention of the printing press.

And today, the Iliad and the Odyssey are recognized as classic works and are required reading for every college student.

No essay on Homer would be complete without a short synopsis of his greatest work.

The Iliad is an epic poem, comprised of 24 books, which cover but a few weeks of the Trojan War, the ten-year long siege of city of Troy. The aggressors were the Greek States and Homer’s poem recounts the some of the battles and the events surrounding the conflict between the King, Agamemnon and a warrior named Achilles. But Homer also gives the reader much historical background and reveals the circumstances, which lead to conflict between the two groups. He also includes many Greek legends associated with the siege of Troy.

One of the most famous incidents in the battle deals with the famous Trojan Horse. The Greeks constructed a giant, hollow wooden horse, in which elite fighters could be hidden. The Trojan’s were persuaded that the structure was a gift from Athena and that it would make them invincible. They admitted the horse through city gates and that night the soldiers emerged to lay waste to Troy.

In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy, daughter of Zeus, was abducted by Paris, Prince of Troy. And this act brought about the Trojan War.

The Odyssey is the Homer epic of Odysseus’ decades-long personal struggle to return to his home following the Trojan War. Along the way he fends off various mythical characters and faces head on the wrath of several gods.

Back home during his absence, suitors compete for his wife, Penelope’s affections, even as his son Telemachus makes a valiant effort to dissuade them from pursuit.

In the end, Odysseus triumphs, slays his wive’s suitors and reclaims the throne of Ithica.

Homer’s Odyssey is a lengthy poem in which Odysseus is portrayed as a very clever, or to use his word, “wily”.

Why did the trip take ten years? He encountered many antagonists including Poseidon and the fact that his crewmen were said to be greedy and lazy.

Homer’s Poems are written in hexameter. A characteristic of this style of writing, is the regular timing of phonetic sounds. Iambic pentameter is the more popular verse in English poems. HOMER, SAMPLE ESSAY

 

 

 

 

Golden Age 21  MIXTURISM   (Mix-TUR-ism)

 

open mind 2 pix

The failure of 19th century Capitalism and the failure of 20th century Socialism will make straight the path for American Mixturism to transform the poor nations of the world from rags to riches and the wealthy nations from great to super-great in the 21st century.
All lands of planet Earth will become the promised land of milk and honey.

Endowed with Democracy, an individual Bill Of Rights, and the flexible economic, ethical, and political system of MIXTURISM, there are no problems which people cannot solve.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CALLS FOR AN ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF MIXTURISM, NOT CAPITALISM, NOT SOCIALISM, BUT A MIX OF BOTH PRIVATE AND PUBLIC ENTERPRISES…

Philosophy of Mixturism

Mixturism is a mixing of private and public enterprise in any activity of a socio-economic system without any fixed ratio so that the needs of all people in the society can be met and progress promoted for all the people. The mixing of private and public enterprise, or the partnership of private and public enterprise, can solve all economic problems for people.

If public enterprise can do a better job than private enterprise in any area of endeavor, then let public enterprise do the job. When private enterprise can do a better job than public enterprise, then public enterprise must give way to private enterprise. When neither private nor public enterprise by itself can fill the vacuum that exists in economic development, then private and public enterprise must form a partnership to fill the vacuum. Meeting the needs of all the people must be the determining factor as to which enterprise, private, public or joint private and public enterprise is used. Private enterprise should own the means of production and distribution; public enterprise should provide the infrastructure such as: roads, bridges, education, heath insurance, Social Security,military, post office, employer of last resort and all the things it presently does and more.

The idea that the use of one economic system can meet the needs of all the people is absurd. In order to encompass the different abilities, needs and desires of all people, economic systems must be flexible.

Mixturism unlike other “isms,” does not put people into straightjackets as they try to solve their economic problems. Other “isms” allow for only certain methods to be used in solving problems and limit the number of solutions acceptable to the “isms.”
In Miixturism, the solution to the problem is deemed more important than the method used to find the solution or the method by which the solution is put into operation.

The use of Mixturism would not destroy any system that presently exists, but would call for the use of what is good in all systems in order to solve problems.

Mixturism would inject enough private enterprise into those economic systems which do not primarily use private enterprise in order to provide incentives that are needed to motivate people to develop their economy for their own benefit, as well as for the benefit of all people.

The chief goal of people is to live their duration on earth in the “best possible fashion.” Progress, or achievement of the “best possible fashion,” is anything, which leads to every person having the best of all goods, and services that are needed for quality living.
Governments have three main functions: First, to guarantee the rights and freedoms of its people; second, to provide a political and economic system whereby the people can have quality living; and third, provide their part of a UN peace keeping force strong enough to guarantee peach on earth.

Any government, which does not guarantee its people the means to obtain jobs at wages high enough for quality living, has fallen short of its duty to its people. Through the philosophy of Mixturism and the understanding of Nature’s Basic Law of Economics, a government can provide and guarantee quality living for all its people by creating a Reserve-Retraining Work Force which would eliminate unemployment. The question that must be asked: are there people resources and natural resources available to produce goods and services? If the answer is yes, governments or private enterprises must produce the capital that is needed to bring together these resources so the goods and services needed and desired can be produced. Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution gives Congress the power it needs to by-pass the Federal Reserve (a private banking system) and create the money the Government needs, without out borrowing money. All people live today, not some times in the future. Why should any percentage of the people have to wait for better economic times just to have the 30 essentials for living when it would be so easy?

Nature’s Basic Law of Economics

Nature’s Basic Law of Economics states: there are only two kinds of resources—people resources and natural resources. All goods and services are produced when people resources work with natural resources. As long as these two resources are available, there is no reason for not producing the goods and services needed and wanted by the people of the world.

Money should be used as a medium of exchange to facilitate the exchange of people’s productivity. If there is a shortage of money, governments have the responsibility to supply the money necessary.

There is no excuse for a depression or a recession unless some natural disaster renders the combination of people resources and natural resources unworkable.

It is not a natural disaster that afflicts the world. The disaster is the result of the abysmal ignorance of government officials concerning Nature’s Basic Law of Economics. That disaster has names such as “recession,” “inflation,” “welfare,” “unemployment,” “crime,” and “poverty.” Bringing together people resources and natural resources in full employment at quality wages is the first task of government officials—when they learn Nature’s Basic Law of Economics, the whole world will benefit.

People talk of everything in terms of money, when they should be talking in terms of people resources and natural resources.
Instead of asking how much money a thing will cost, the question should be, how many people and how much in natural resources will be required to produce the good and service? To think of money only as a commodity instead of as a medium of exchange is to make money a barrier to economic prosperity. Money should be used to exchange the goods and services people produce, not impede the flow of economic life.

One often hears, “I’m tired of the Government spending my tax dollars on welfare programs and space flights, etc.” A person making such a statement probably does not realize that we live in an interdependent world. Such a statement reflects the philosophy of money as a commodity, not money as a medium of exchange. A welfare recipient, for example, serves a useful economic purpose—providing employment for “bureaucrats” and spending power for the “bureaucrats” and the welfare recipient. The recipient of government money from space programs, to use a parallel, is also providing the community with the power to exchange goods and services. Instead of the complaint that the government makes to many dollars available, the complaint should be that the government makes too few dollars available.

THE FIVE FINGER  MIXTURIST (Mix-TUR-ist) AGENDA

1.ADEQUATE MONETARY SYSTEM: The three functions of the Federal Reserve private banking system to lower or raise discount rates, to buy or sell securities on the open market, to lower or raise the reserve requirements for member banks are inadequate for maintaining a balanced money supply at all times. By adding a FOURTH AND A FIFTH FUNCTION to the monetary system, a balanced money supply could be achieved. The fourth function would index the PAYROLL TAX on a scale of 1 to 10 which would bring a better balance. The index could be lowered when more money is desired in the consumers pockets and raised when less is needed. NEW MONEY WOULD BE CREATED TO MAKE UP THE DEFICIT, NOT BORROWED FROM CHINA OR ANYONE ELSE. A fifth function could be added by using Article !, Section 8, of the Constitution to coin money and regulate the value there of, and  then– BYPASS THE FEDERAL RESERVE PRIVATE BANKING INDUSTRY and give the money to the Treasury Department. The Treasury could fund infrastructure work, and give money to the states to help them fund programs. States gave up there right to create money when they joined the United States of America.

The American people needs to know that banks BUY and SELL money like all other businesses do; that when a bank pays 2 percent for money and sell it for 8 percent, the banks make 400 percent gross profit and not 6 percent like they would like for you to think. If a merchant pays two dollars for a candy bar and sells it for eight dollars, the gross profit would be 400 percent just like a bank buying money for two dollars and selling it for eight dollars. The gross profit would be 400 percent. Banks are engaged in Loan sharking! ANY INTEREST RATE OVER FIVE PERCENT IS USURY.

CONGRESS NEEDS TO CREATE NEW MONEY EACH YEAR EQUIVALENT TO THE INCREASE IN THE GREED INDEX WHICH IS CALLED INFLATION. INFLATION IS AN EUPHEMISM FOR THEFT. GREED WITH A PRICE MARKER DEVALUES MONEY. Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution gives Congress three way to raise money: taxation, borrowing money, and most important coining money and regulating the value. Congress uses a two leg stool when the stool has three legs. ONLY CONGRESS HAS THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWER TO CREATE MONEY, NOT THE FEDERAL RESERVE PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM.

Article 1 – The Legislative Branch
Section 8 – Powers of Congress ***See to coin money…
**** To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; WHY NOT USE THIS LEG OF A THREE LEG STOOL TO SOLVE AMERICA’S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS? WHY USE ONLY TWO LEGS?

2.RESERVE RETRAINING WORK FORCE: The greatest problem facing America is EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT. This problem can be PERMANENTLY solved by establishing a Reserve Retraining Work force. Everyone would be in the regular work force or in the Reserve-Retraining Work force. All unemployment would be by choice.
It wouldn’t matter which side of the track you were born on, you would go to school free, and in some case the unemployed would get paid a living wage while going to school. Any one could go as far as their mind will let them by making passing grades. Employment offices would mean what they say: employment or education with pay. When old jobs are no longer needed, people must be re-trained for new jobs and get paid while being re-trained.

3. ALL AMERICANS WHO WANT TO OWN A HOME SHOULD BE ABLE TO, REGARDLESS OF INCOME. The Federal Government should endow a HOME LOAN FUND, so anyone making below average wages could borrow money to finance a home at an interest rate from 1% to 2% FOR UP TO
50 YEARS. The Federal Government must become a competitor of the banking industry. Public enterprise has as much right to exist as does private enterprise. The Constitution call for a form of MIXTURISM: business and government working together to meet the needs and desires of all the people.

4. HEALTH CARE SYSTEM: Since the average health care claims run under $20,000, the Federal Government could pay all claims over $20,000 for only 32 billion dollars per 1 trillion dollars of total health care cost. Without having to worry about claims for over $20,000, small businesses and small organizations could self-insure which would put real competition in the insurance industry where none now exist. THIS WILL LEAD TO A SINGLE PAY UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. Obama Care is a giant step toward Universal Health Care. Paying all claims over $20,000 is the next best step. Public enterprise has as much right to exist as does private enterprise. All the Government wants and needs to do is provide the money to pay for health care. The Government doesn’t want to own doctors or hospitals. It just wants to make sure doctors and hospitals get paid. The last thing that Government wants or needs to do is take over doctors and hospitals. A poor argument made by those who oppose Universal Health Care.

5. A FIRST CLASS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM CAN BEST BE ESTABLISHED BY HAVING THE TEACHER BECOME THE DIRECTOR OF A PLANNED PROGRAM THAT WILL REACH ALL OBJECTIVES DESIRED USING THE BEST OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. WE COULD SPEND A FEW MILLION  DOLLARS ON EVERY COURSE BEING TAUGHT IN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE THAT WOULD TEACH EVERY THING KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT BY EXPERTS WHICH WOULD COST A LOT LESS THAN WHAT WE ARE NOW SPENDING ON EDUCATION, AND IT WOULD ALLOW ALL TEACHERS TO DO A SUPER JOB OF TEACHING. Every person regardless of which side of the track they were born on; they should go to school free as far as their mind will take them. We could create an On Line Digital University with the greatest teachers and make it free to anyone willing to do the work…THE GREATEST PART OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE IS EDUCATION.

THE DREAM OF THE VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE ON PLANET EARTH IS NOT TO BECOME MILLIONAIRES; BUT TO HAVE THE 30 plus ESSENTIALS FOR LIVING, NOT JUST EXISTING.
THE 30 plus ESSENTIALS OF LIFE FOR LIVING –NOT JUST EXISTING ARE: ROOF OVER THEIR HEAD, CLOTHES ON THEIR BACK, FOOD ON THE TABLE, AUTOMOBILE, EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, ALARM CLOCK, LIGHTS ON, WATER RUNNING, TOILET FLUSHING, AIR CONDITION, STOVE, REFRIGERATOR, DISH WASHER, WASHING MACHINE, CLOTHES DRYER, MICROWAVE, COFFEE POT, BATH TUB, SHOWER, FURNITURE, LINENS AND THINGS, TV SET, COMPUTER, HOUSE PHONE, CELL PHONE, VACUUM CLEANER, VACATION, TOILET PAPER AND A JOB OR INCOME THAT WILL PROVIDE THESE 30 plus THINGS. ALL OF THESE ARE POSSIBLE NOW. WHY WAIT? The sad part of all is that the rate of cost for any of the 30 plus essentials for living cost the same whether you make ten thousand dollars a year or a million dollars a year.

THE ONLY THING BLOCKING THE DOOR TO THE AMERICAN DREAM IS THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; THAT DREAM COULD BE NOW. WHY SHOULD THE POOR WAIT UNTIL TOMORROW TO EAT– WHILE THE RICH GET RICHER? internetfreepress.com. 

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Born out of the sun 2014

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A DISCOVERY OF THE UNIFYING INFINITESIMAL PARTICLES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOR OF ALL MATTER…

When hydrogen is converted into helium in the sun by nuclear fusion, the lost mass is smashed into billions of infinitely small particles of many sizes. The smallest of all particles, the unifying infinitesimal particles, are the ones that organize and control the behavior of all matter. The unifying infinitesimal particles leave the sun at 186, 000 miles per second forming the light waves out of particles that carry light (photons) and packets of particles (quanta) to all objects in the solar system creating electro-gravitational-magnets out of all the objects.

Electricity, gravity, and magnetism are three aspects of the same thing. They encompass all the weak, strong, and color forces. If one side of a coin is electricity, the other side is magnetism and the substance of the coin is gravity.

The unifying infinitesimal particles from suns organize and control all matter whether in uniform motion or in a state of chaos, whether in our solar system or the trillions of other solar systems teeming with life throughout the universe.

If we give the smallest particle a value of one, the value of the largest particle the size of a period at the end of this sentence would be one billion. Divide and subdivide the period a trillion times, and you will be at the smallest particle.

All the laws of biology, chemistry, physics, sociology, psychology, and mathematics are valid throughout the universe. The speed of light and e=mc2 are universal values.

The universe is eternal; it had no beginning; it will have no end; it was not created by any gods or Gods. There have been innumerable big bangs in the past, and there will too many in the future to count. This solar system is a microcosm of the universe. We do not need to find life on mars or the moons of Jupiter to know there is life on other planets; all we need to do is look on planet earth, and put the book of Genesis on the same shelf with Santa Claus and the Too